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Design and Implementation of Pegadogies of Engagement. Karl A. Smith Engineering Education – Purdue University Civil Engineering - University of Minnesota STEP Project Workshop Louisiana State University College of Engineering May 2007.

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design and implementation of pegadogies of engagement
Design and Implementation of Pegadogies of Engagement

Karl A. Smith

Engineering Education – Purdue University

Civil Engineering - University of Minnesota

STEP Project Workshop

Louisiana State University

College of Engineering

May 2007

design and implementation of pedagogies of engagement overview resources
Design and Implementation of Pedagogies of Engagement – Overview & Resources
  • Design Framework – How People Learn
  • Design & Backward Design Process (Felder & Brent, Dee Fink and Wiggins & McTighe)
  • Pedagogies of Engagement - Instructional Format explanation (or exercise to engage workshop participants)
    • Smith web site –
    • University of Delaware PBL web site –
  • Design of Challenge-Based (PBL) exercises
    • Creating High Quality Learning Environments (Bransford, Vye & Bateman) --
    • Cooperative Learning (Johnson, Johnson & Smith)
  • Course, Class Session, and Learning Module Design: From Objectives and Evidence to Instruction



Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology – National Science Foundation, 1996

Goal B All students have access to supportive, excellent undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology, and all students learn these subjects by direct experience with the methods and processes of inquiry.

Recommend that SME&T faculty: Believe and affirm that every student can learn, and model good practices that increase learning; starting with the student=s experience, but have high expectations within a supportive climate; and build inquiry, a sense of wonder and the excitement of discovery, plus communication and teamwork, critical thinking, and life-long learning skills into learning experiences.



National Research Council Reports:

How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (1999).

How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice (2000).

Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment (2001).

The Knowledge Economy and Postsecondary Education (2002). Chapter 6 – Creating High-Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People Learn

NCEE Report

Rethinking and redesigning curriculum, instruction and assessment: What contemporary research and theory suggests. (2006).


some important principles about learning and understanding
Some Important Principles About Learning and Understanding

The first important principle about how people learn is that students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works which include beliefs and prior knowledge acquired through various experiences.

The second important principle about how people learn is that to develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must: (a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, (b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and (c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application.

A third critical idea about how people learn is that a “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them.

Jim Pellegrino – Rethinking and redesigning curriculum, instruction and assessment: What contemporary research and theory suggests



The engineering method is design under constraints – Wm. Wulf, President, National Academy of Engineering

The engineering method is the use of heuristics to cause the best change in a poorly understood situation within the available resources – Billy Koen, Discussion of the Method

A scientist discovers that which exists. An engineer creates that which never was -- Theodore von Kármán (1881-1963)


engineering design
Engineering = Design

Design in a major sense is the essence of engineering; it begins with the identification of a need and ends with a product or system in the hands of a user. It is primarily concerned with synthesis rather than the analysis which is central to engineering science. Design, above all else, distinguishes engineering from science (Hancock, 1986, National Science Foundation Workshop).

Design defines engineering. It's an engineer's job to create new things to improve society. It's the University's obligation to give students fundamental education in design (William Durfee, ME, U of Minnesota, Minnesota Technolog, Nov/Dec 1994).

engineering design1
Engineering design is a systematic, intelligent process in which designers generate, evaluate, and specify concepts for devices, systems, or processes whose form and function achieve clients’ objectives or users’ needs while satisfying a specified set of constraints.Engineering Design

Engineering Design Thinking, Teaching, and Learning --


skills often associated with good designers the ability to
Skills often associated with good designers – the ability to:
  • tolerate ambiguity that shows up in viewing design as inquiry or as an iterative loop of divergent-convergent thinking;
  • maintain sight of the big picture by including systems thinking and systems design;
  • handle uncertainty;
  • make decisions;
  • think as part of a team in a social process; and
  • think and communicate in the several languages of design.

Engineering Design Thinking, Teaching, and Learning --



Time, April 2005




Design Thinking

Discipline Thinking

Ideo's five-point model for strategizing by design:

Hit the Streets

Recruit T-Shaped People

Build to Think

The Prototype Tells a Story

Design Is Never Done

Tom Friedman



AAC&U College Learning

For the New Global Century


effective course design

Goals and



Effective Course Design

(Felder & Brent, 1999)

ABET EC 2000




goals & objectives












Other measures





A Self-Directed Guide to Designing Courses for Significant Learning

L. Dee Fink. 2003. Creating significant learning experiences. Jossey-Bass.


backward design wiggins mctighe
Backward DesignWiggins & McTighe

Stage 1. Identify Desired Results

Stage 2. Determine Acceptable Evidence

Stage 3. Plan Learning Experiences

and Instruction

Wiggins, Grant and McTighe, Jay. 1998. Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD



Worksheet 1

Worksheet for Designing a Course/Class Session




Knowledge Areas


  • leadership
  • teamwork
  • communication
  • decision-making
  • recognize & manage change
  • work effectively in diverse & multicultural environments
  • work effectively in the global engineering profession
  • synthesize engineering, business, and societal perspectives
  • science & math
  • engineering fundamentals
  • analytical skills
  • open-ended design &
  • problem solving skills
  • multidisciplinarity within and beyond engineering
  • integration of analytical, problem solving, and
  • design skills
  • innovative
  • strong work ethic
  • globally, socially, ethically, intellectually, and technologically responsible
  • adaptable in a changing environment
  • entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial
  • curious and persistent lifelong learners

Purdue’s Engineer of 2020 Program Outcomes

Vision: Purdue Engineers will be prepared for leadership roles in responding to the global technological, economic, and societal challenges of the 21st century.

Strategy: We will provide educational experiences that develop students’ technical strength, leadership, innovation, flexibility, and creativity to enable them to identify needs and construct effective solutions in an economically, socially, and culturally relevant manner.


The Purdue 2020 Curricula Pillars

backward design
Backward Design

Stage 1. Identify Desired Results

Filter 1. To what extent does the idea, topic, or

process represent a big idea or having

enduring value beyond the classroom?

Filter 2. To what extent does the idea, topic, or

process reside at the heart of the discipline?

Filter 3. To what extent does the idea, topic, or

process require uncoverage?

Filter 4. To what extent does the idea, topic, or

process offer potential for engaging



backward design1
Backward Design

Stage 2. Determine Acceptable Evidence

Types of Assessment

Quiz and Test Items:

Simple, content-focused test items

Academic Prompts:

Open-ended questions or problems that

require the student to think critically

Performance Tasks or Projects:

Complex challenges that mirror the issues or

problems faced by graduates, they are authentic


backward design approach
Backward Design Approach:
  • Desired Results (Outcomes, Objectives, Learning Goals)
    • 5 minute university
  • Evidence (Assessment)
    • Learning Taxonomies
  • Plan Instruction
    • Cooperative Learning Planning Format & Forms




Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives: Cognitive Domain (Bloom & Krathwohl, 1956)

A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001).

Facets of understanding (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998)

Taxonomy of significant learning (Dee Fink, 2003)



The Six Major Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain(with representative behaviors and sample objectives)

  • Knowledge. Remembering information Define, identify, label, state, list, match
    • Identify the standard peripheral components of a computer
    • Write the equation for the Ideal Gas Law
  • Comprehension. Explaining the meaning of information Describe, generalize, paraphrase, summarize, estimate
    • In one sentence explain the main idea of a written passage
    • Describe in prose what is shown in graph form
  • Application. Using abstractions in concrete situations Determine, chart, implement, prepare, solve, use, develop
      • Using principles of operant conditioning, train a rate to press a bar
      • Derive a kinetic model from experimental data
  • Analysis. Breaking down a whole into component parts Points out, differentiate, distinguish, discriminate, compare
    • Identify supporting evidence to support the interpretation of a literary passage
    • Analyze an oscillator circuit and determine the frequency of oscillation
  • Synthesis. Putting parts together to form a new and integrated whole Create, design, plan, organize, generate, write
    • Write a logically organized essay in favor of euthanasia
    • Develop an individualized nutrition program for a diabetic patient
  • Evaluation. Making judgments about the merits of ideas, materials, or phenomena Appraise, critique, judge, weigh, evaluate, select
    • Assess the appropriateness of an author's conclusions based on the evidence given
    • Select the best proposal for a proposed water treatment plant



(Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001).


The Cognitive Process Dimension

The Knowledge Dimension


Imbrie and Brophy, 2007


Facets of Understanding

Wiggins & McTighe, 1998, page 44

When we truly understand,we

Can explain

Can interpret

Can apply

Have perspective

Can empathize

Have self-knowledge


backward design2
Backward Design

Stage 3.Plan Learning Experiences & Instruction

  • What enabling knowledge (facts, concepts, and principles) and skills (procedures) will students need to perform effectively and achieve desired results?
  • What activities will equip students with the needed knowledge and skills?
  • What will need to be taught and coached, and how should it be taught, in light of performance goals?
  • What materials and resources are best suited to accomplish these goals?
  • Is the overall design coherent and effective?


challenged based learning
Challenged-Based Learning
  • Problem-based learning
  • Case-based learning
  • Project-based learning
  • Learning by design
  • Inquiry learning
  • Anchored instruction

John Bransford, Nancy Vye and Helen Bateman. Creating High-Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People Learn


problem based learning pbl small group self directed problem based learning
Problem-Based Learning (PBL)-- Small Group Self-Directed Problem Based Learning --

Problem-based learning is the learning that results from the

process of working toward the understanding or resolution

of a problem. The problem is encounteredfirst in the

learning process. (Barrows and Tamblyn, 1980)

Core Features of PBL

  • Learning is student-centered
  • Learning occurs in small student groups
  • Teachers are facilitators or guides
  • Problems are the organizing focus and stimulus for learning
  • Problems are the vehicle for the development of clinical problem-solving skills
  • New information is acquired through self-directed learning



Problem Based Cooperative Learning Format

TASK: Solve the problem(s) or Complete the project.

INDIVIDUAL: Estimate answer. Note strategy.

COOPERATIVE: One set of answers from the group, strive for agreement, make sure everyone is able to explain the strategies used to solve each problem.

EXPECTED CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS: Everyone must be able to explain the strategies used to solve each problem.

EVALUATION: Best answer within available resources or constraints.

INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY: One member from your group may be randomly chosen to explain (a) the answer and (b) how to solve each problem.

EXPECTED BEHAVIORS: Active participating, checking, encouraging, and elaborating by all members.

INTERGROUP COOPERATION: Whenever it is helpful, check procedures, answers, and strategies with another group.


Cooperative Learning:

Key Concepts

•Positive Interdependence

•Individual and Group Accountability

•Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction

•Teamwork Skills

•Group Processing


active learning cooperation in the college classroom
Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom
  • Informal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Formal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Cooperative Base Groups

See Cooperative Learning

Handout (CL College-804.doc)



Pedagogies of Engagement:

Classroom-Based Practices



“Learning ‘about’ things does not enable students to acquire the abilities and understanding they will need for the twenty-first century. We need new pedagogies of engagement that will turn out the kinds of resourceful, engaged workers and citizens that America now requires.”

Russ Edgerton (reflecting on higher education projects funded by the Pew Memorial Trust)



It could well be that faculty members of the twenty-first century college or university will find it necessary to set aside their roles as teachers and instead become designers of learning experiences, processes, and environments. James Duderstadt, 1999

We never educate directly, but indirectly by means of the environment. Whether we permit chance environments to do the work, or whether we design environments for the purpose makes a great difference.

John Dewey, 1906