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Historical Foundations. Chapter 4. Historical Foundations. Identify events that served as catalysts for physical education, exercise science, and sport’s growth. Identify some of the outstanding leaders in the fields.

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historical foundations1
Historical Foundations
  • Identify events that served as catalysts for physical education, exercise science, and sport’s growth.
  • Identify some of the outstanding leaders in the fields.
  • Discuss recent developments in physical education, exercise science, and sport.
  • Draw implications from history of our fields for the future of physical education, exercise science, and sport
sport history
Sport History
  • Emerged as a subdiscipline in the late 1960s

and early 1970s.

  • “… field of scholarly inquiry with multiple and often intersecting foci, including exercise, the body, play, games, athletics, sports, physical recreations, health, and leisure.” (Struna)
  • How has the past shaped sport and its experiences today?
  • 1973: North American Society for Sport History held its first meeting.
sample areas of study
Sample Areas of Study...
  • How did urbanization influence the development of sports in America?
  • How did the sports activities of Native Americans influence the recreational pursuits of the early colonists?
  • How have Greek ideals influences the development of sportsmanship?
  • How did segregation impact sports opportunities for blacks?
  • What factors influenced the inclusion of physical education in the school curriculum?
  • “Golden Age” of physical education and sport
  • Unity of the mind, body and spirit
  • “Body beautiful”
  • Arete – the pursuit of excellence
  • Vital part of the education of every Greek boy
  • National festivals
    • Olympic Games
  • Exercise for health and military purposes.
  • Greek gymnastics were introduced to Rome after the conquest of Greece but were not popular
    • Rome did not believe in the “body beautiful”
    • Preferred to be spectators rather than participants
    • Preferred professionalism to amateurism.
  • Exciting “blood sports”: gladiatorial combats and chariot races. “Duel to the death” or satisfaction of spectators.
  • Period of nationalism - focus on development of strong citizens through school and community programs of physical education
  • Physical education should be included in the school curriculum – programs emphasizes the development of strength
  • Jahn (1778-1852) – Turnverein movement to mold youth into strong, hardy citizens capable of overthrowing foreign control
  • Scientific study of physical education
    • Use anatomy and physiology to study the effects of physical education on the body
  • Exercises use Swedish apparatus - Per Ling (1776-1839)
    • Design of gymnastic programs to meet specific individual needs
    • 3 Types: Educational gymnastics, military gymnastics, and medical gymnastics
    • Teachers of physical education must have foundational knowledge of the effects of exercise on the human body.
great britain
Great Britain
  • Home of outdoor sports
  • Maclaren (1920-1884)
    • Eager to make physical training a science; a system that was adopted by the British Army
    • Health is more important than strength
    • Exercise adapted to the individual
    • Physical education essential in school curriculum
  • Muscular Christianity
    • Sport contributes to the development of moral character
    • Reconciles sport and religion
pe in the u s
PE in the U.S.
  • Influenced by European ideals
    • Systems of gymnastics (exercises)
    • Philosophies of physical education
  • Growth of influence of Ancient Asian cultures
    • Yoga
    • Martial arts
    • Relationships between the mind, body, and spirit
colonial period 1607 1783
Colonial Period (1607-1783)
  • Colonists led an agrarian existence - physical activity through performing tasks essential to living and survival.
  • Colonists brought sports with them from their native lands.
  • Puritans denounced play as evil; recreational pursuits frowned upon.
  • Reading, writing, and arithmetic in schools, not physical education.
national period 1784 1861
National Period (1784-1861)
  • Growth of private schools for females
  • Introduction of German gymnastics to schools
  • 1852: First intercollegiate competition: a crew race between Harvard and Yale.
  • Catherine Beecher (1800-1878)
    • Calisthenics performed to music
    • One of the first to advocate for daily physical education
  • Invention of baseball
  • Horseracing, foot races, rowing, and gambling on sport events popular
civil war period until 1900
Civil War Period until 1900
  • Turnverein societies continue to grow and include both girls and boys
  • Dio Lewis
    • Programs for the “weak and feeble” in society
    • Training school for teachers in Boston
    • Inclusion of gymnastic programs in the schools
  • Nissen - Swedish Movement Cure grows in popularity and recognized for its inherent medical values
  • YMCA established; international training school at Springfield College
civil war period until 19001
Civil War Period until 1900
  • Growth of American sport in popularity
    • Tennis
    • Golf
    • Bowling
    • Basketball (Naismith)
  • Founding of forerunner of Amateur Athletic Association (AAU)
  • Revival of Olympics in Athens
  • Colleges and universities develop departments and expand programs
civil war period until 19002
Civil War Period until 1900
  • Expansion of intercollegiate athletics
    • Abuses raise concerns
    • Establishment of governing bodies
  • Emphasis on teacher preparation, scientific basis of PE, diagnosis and prescription of activity
  • Organized PE programs in elementary and secondary schools
  • 1885 - Founding of the forerunner of AAHPERD
  • “Battle of the Systems”
early twentieth century 1900s 1940s
Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s)
  • Extensive interscholastic programs - controversy over programs for girls
  • Growth of intramural programs and emphasis on games and sports in our programs
  • Increased concern for the physically underdeveloped in our society
  • Playground movement
  • Higher standards for teacher training (4 year preparation)
  • NCAA established to monitor collegiate athletics
world war i 1916 1919
World War I (1916-1919)
  • Physical educators developed conditioning programs for armed forces .
  • After the war, health statistics revealed that the nation was in poor shape (1/3 of men were physically unfit for armed service).
  • Growth and upgrade of PE programs in schools following war due to legislation in some states.
golden twenties 1920 1929
Golden Twenties (1920-1929)
  • Move away from formal systems of gymnastics toward games, sports, and valuable recreation and leisure time.
  • “New” physical education emphasized contribution to the total development of the individual; “education through the physical” vs. “education of the physical”.
  • Calls for reform of collegiate athletics due to increasing professionalism, public entertainment, and commercialization.
  • Women’s programs increase staff, activities, required participation, and facilities.
depression years 1930 1939
Depression Years (1930-1939)
  • Economic forces lead to cutbacks in PE programs and growth of recreational programs.
  • Physical educators more involved in recreational programs for the unemployed.
  • Growth of interscholastic, intercollegiate and women’s programs.
  • Charles McCloy (1886-1959) – advocated “education of the physical” and stressed the importance documenting results and measuring progress of using scientific data
mid twentieth century 1940 1970
Mid-twentieth Century (1940-1970)
  • Impact of WW II physical training programs
  • Physical fitness movement
    • President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports
  • Athletics
    • Increase opportunities for girls and women
    • Increased interest in lifetime sports
    • Sport programs below high school level increase
    • Increased number of intramural programs
mid twentieth century 1940 19701
Mid-twentieth Century (1940-1970)
  • Professional preparation
    • Colleges and universities increase programs for teachers
    • American College of Sports Medicine (1954)
    • National Athletic Trainers’ Association (1950)
  • Programs for individuals with disabilities
    • Special Olympics (1968)
  • Research grows in importance and becomes increasingly specialized
significant recent developments
Significant Recent Developments
  • Emergence of subdisciplines
  • Disease prevention and health promotion
    • Healthy People
    • Objectives for the Nation
    • Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health
    • Healthy People 2000
    • Healthy People 2010
  • Legislation promoting opportunities for girls and women, and people with disabilities
  • Increased technology
school physical education
School Physical Education
  • Recognition of the critical role school PE in achieving national health goals
  • Fitness status and physical activity of children and youth is a concern
  • Congressional support for high-quality, daily physical education
  • Daily PE declines from 42% in 1991 to 28% in 2003.
  • Only one state, Illinois, requires daily PE for all students, K-12
  • National Content Standards offer a national framework
  • Emergence of new curricular models
physical fitness and participation in physical activity
Physical Fitness and Participation in Physical Activity
  • Expansion of the fitness movement and involvement in physical activity
  • Shift from performance- to health-related fitness to an emphasis on moderate-intensity physical activity
  • Physical inactivity recognized as a major health problem
the growth of sport
The Growth of Sport
  • Phenomenal growth of participation in sports at all levels
  • Youth sports involve more than 25 million children
  • Interscholastic sports involve more than 6 million boys and girls
    • Trend toward early specialization
the growth of sport1
The Growth of Sport
  • Intercollegiate sports involves nearly 400,000 athletes
    • Growth of sport as “big business” in some institutions
  • Growth of recreational sport leagues and amateur sports for adults of all ages
  • Professional sports continue to expand including professional leagues for women
girls and women in sport
Girls and Women in Sport
  • Rapid growth since the passage of Title IX in 1972
  • Changes in governance of intercollegiate sports
  • Challenges to Title IX
  • Changes in physical education classes following passage of Title IX
programs for individuals with disabilities
Programs for Individuals with Disabilities
  • Federal Legislation
    • PL 93-122 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
    • PL 94-142 Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975
    • Amateur Sports Act of 1978
    • PL 101-336 Americans with Disabilities Act
  • Paralympics
  • Rebirth of the Olympics in 1896
  • Centennial Olympics celebrated in Atlanta in 1996
  • Politicization of the Olympic Games
  • Evolving definitions of amateurism
  • “Fairness” issues in the Olympics
  • Addition of non-traditional sports
  • Commercialization of the Olympics
  • Computer technology and sophisticated research equipment
  • Has led to record-breaking achievements for elite athletes in nearly all sports
  • Facility improvement
  • Fitness tests data available in schools with addition of heart rate monitors