A Framework of Analysis of Style (5) Style Markers in Syntax An Introduction to English Stylistics School of Foreign Studies, South China Normal University 罗朝晖
Noun Phrases • Among six types of phrases (NP, AdjP, AdvP, PrepP, GP—genitive phrase 所有格/所属格短语，VP), NP is more versatile in its syntactic function than others, and it can be made variously complex by the attachment of different types of modifiers, so it is more stylistically significant than others. （examples: p. 67 ）
NP • Determinative premodificationHeadPostmodification Determiners AdjPs, Nouns PrepPs (e.g.: the, that,Nouns, Pronouns Non-finite Cls some, all GPsAdjs Relative Cls both, my …) Numerals Nps • Numerals Adjs, Advs • NP • Determinative premodification Head Postmodification
Group work (All groups) : Read pp.67-69, and discuss the following: Differences between the use of pre-modification and that of post-modification
Be given the status of relatively permanent or characteristic feature; More compressed but less explicit; Frequently used in newspaper headlines for economizing space and also to arouse the reader’s interest to go on reading the news item. Potentially open-ended，no limit to its length, and more explicit; Usually in written legal or scientific English to convey meaning exactly and explicitly, to avoid any possible ambiguity or misinterpretation. E.g.: p.68 Premodificationvs. Postmodification
Nominalization— when a clause is reduced to a noun phrase. • Nominalization of a dynamic action often neutralizes the action and permits the deletion of reference to the participant roles associated with the action. It may sometimes cause inexplicitness or suspense.
Identify the participant roles represented by the subjects in all the sentences in the following extract. Discuss why the writer choose the form of subject to represent these roles:
Assassination has been inaugurated in Washington. The bowie knife and the pistol have been applied to President Lincoln and Secretary Seward. The former was shot in the throat, while at Ford’s theatre tonight. Mr. Seward was badly cut about the neck, while in his bed at his residence. (Washington, Apr. 14, 1865) Cf.President Lincoln was shot and killed byan assassintoday in Washington. （Cf.: 源于拉丁语，confer的缩写，意即比较或查阅）
To highlight the actions themselves and the NPs representing the objective role (Assassination ), the instrumental role (The bowie knife and the pistol )and the recipient role (The former; Mr. Seward ); to remain neutral and objective, to avoid subjective judgment in news report, especially when the truth is not yet revealed; to create a sense of suspense and arouse the reader’s interest to go on reading.