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Endocrine (regulatory) System. Chapter 45. Introductory Questions #3. Name the nine major endocrine glands found in the body. Which one ins called the “master gland”? Name three major local regulators that act on nearby target cells. (pgs. 947-948)

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introductory questions 3
Introductory Questions #3
  • Name the nine major endocrine glands found in the body. Which one ins called the “master gland”?
  • Name three major local regulators that act on nearby target cells. (pgs. 947-948)
  • Name three key molecules that play a role in the signal transduction pathway (typical reactions in the endocrine system).
  • How is the anterior part of the pituitary gland different from the posterior part? Name the hormones secreted from each area. Which region secretes fewer types of hormones?
  • Using the table on pg. 949, name the hormone(s) that:

-Raises blood-calcium levels

-maintains metabolic processes

vertebrate endocrine system
Vertebrate Endocrine System
  • Tropic hormones ~ a hormone that has another endocrine gland as a target
  • Hypothalamus~pituitary
  • Pituitary gland
  • Pineal gland
  • Thyroid gland
  • Parathyroid glands
  • Thymus
  • Adrenal glands
  • Pancreas
  • Gonads (ovary, testis)
regulatory systems
Regulatory Systems
  • Hormone~ chemical signal secreted into body fluids (blood) communicating regulatory messages
  • Target cells~ body cells that respond to hormones
  • Endocrine system/glands~ hormone secreting system/glands (ductless); exocrine glands secrete chemicals (sweat, mucus, enzymes) through ducts
  • Neurosecretory cells~ actual cells that secrete hormones
  • Feedback mechanisms ~ negative and positive
local regulators cells adjacent to or near point of secretion
Local Regulators: cells adjacent to or near point of secretion
  • Growth factors ~ proteins for cell proliferation
  • Nitric oxide (NO) ~ neurotransmitter; cell destruction; vessel dilation
  • Prostaglandins ~ modified fatty acids secreted by placenta and immune system; also found in semen
mode of action chemical signaling
Mode of Action: Chemical Signaling
  • 1- Plasma membrane reception • signal-transduction pathways (neurotransmitters, growth factors, most hormones)
  • 2- Cell nucleus reception • steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, some local regulators
hypothalamus pituitary gland
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland
  • Releasing and inhibiting hormones
  • Anterior pituitary:
  • Growth (GH)~bones √gigantism/dwarfism √acromegaly
  • Prolactin (PRL)~mammary glands; milk production
  • Follicle-stimulating (FSH) &
  • Luteinizing (LH)~ovaries/testes
  • Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)~ thyroid
  • Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)~ adrenal cortex
  • Melanocyte-stimulating (MSH)
  • Endorphins~natural ‘opiates’; brain pain receptors
posterior region of the pituitary gland
Posterior Region of the Pituitary Gland
  • The posterior pituitary:
  • Oxytocin~ uterine and mammary gland cell contraction
  • Antidiuretic (ADH)~ retention of water by kidneys
the pineal thyroid parathyroid
The Pineal, Thyroid, & Parathyroid
  • Melatonin~ pineal gland; biological rhythms
  • Thyroid hormones: Calcitonin~ lowers blood calcium Thyroxine~ metabolic processes
  • Parathyroid (PTH)~raises blood calcium
the pancreas
The Pancreas
  • Islets of Langerhans
  • Alpha cells: •glucagon~ raises blood glucose levels
  • Beta cells: •insulin~ lowers blood glucose levels
  • Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent; autoimmune disorder)
  • Type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent; reduced responsiveness in insulin targets)
the adrenal glands
The Adrenal Glands
  • Adrenal medulla (catecholamines): •epinephrine & norepinephrine~increase basal metabolic rate (blood glucose and pressure)
  • Adrenal cortex (corticosteroids): •glucocorticoids(cortisol)~raise blood glucose•mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)~reabsorption of Na+ and K+
the gonads
The Gonads
  • Steroid hormones: precursor is cholesterol
    • Androgens (testosterone)
      • sperm formation
      • male secondary sex characteristics; gonadotropin
    • Estrogens (estradiol)
      • uterine lining growth
      • female secondary sex characteristics
      • gonadotropin
    • Progestins (progesterone)
      • uterine lining growth
ch 45 endocrine system systems in balance
Ch. 45 Endocrine System: Systems in Balance
  • What organism does Dr. Hunt & Dr. Fry use to discuss and show how a toxic chemical affects hormone balance?
  • How is a hormone defined in the video and how do these chemicals control metabolic activities in animals?
  • What two structures in the brain does Dr. Catherine Rivier explore that relates to stress?
  • How is the endocrine system similar to the nervous system? How do they interact?
  • In the final segment name two methods scientists use to study the endocrine system and the effects of hormones?

Important Text Pages: Pg.

**Write the title for each segment and FIVE statements for each segment.

the gonads15
The Gonads
  • Steroid hormones: precursor is cholesterol
  • androgens (testosterone)~ sperm formation; male secondary sex characteristics; gonadotropin
  • estrogens (estradiol)~uterine lining growth; female secondary sex characteristics; gonadotropin
  • progestins (progesterone)~uterine lining growth
let sleeping bears lie
Let Sleeping Bears Lie
  • Bears don’t technically hibernate
    • They do enter a dormant state, when their body temperature drops by several degrees
  • Bears are endotherms
    • Endothermic animals derive most of their body heat from metabolism
    • Ectothermic animals warm themselves mainly by absorbing heat from their surroundings
Thermoregulation maintains the body temperature within a tolerable range
  • Osmoregulation controls the gain and loss of water and dissolved solutes
  • Excretion is the disposal of metabolic wastes
  • Dormant bears have internal homeostatic mechanisms that compensate for fluctuations in the external environment
heat is gained or lost in four ways
Heat is gained or lost in four ways
  • Body temperature regulation requires adjustment to heat gained from or lost to an animal’s environment





Figure 25.1

Fur and feathers help the body retain heat
  • Shivering, as these honeybees are doing, also increases metabolic heat production
  • Hormonal changes may increase heat production by raising the metabolic rate

Figure 25.2A

the liver is vital in homeostasis
The liver is vital in homeostasis
  • It assists the kidneys by
    • making urea from ammonia
    • breaking down toxic chemicals
homeostasis regulation of internal environment
Homeostasis: regulation of internal environment
  • Thermoregulation internal temperature
  • Osmoregulation solute and water balance
  • Excretion nitrogen containing waste
regulation of body temperature
Regulation of body temperature
  • Thermoregulation
  • 4 physical processes:
  • Conduction~transfer of heat between molecules of body and environment
  • Convection~transfer of heat as water/air move across body surface
  • Radiation~transfer of heat produced by organisms
  • Evaporation~loss of heat from liquid to gas
  • Sources of body heat:
  • Ectothermic: determined by environment
  • Endothermic: high metabolic rate generates high body heat
regulation during environmental extremes
Regulation during environmental extremes
  • Torpor~ low activity; decrease in metabolic rate
  • 1- Hibernation long term or winter torpor (winter cold and food scarcity); bears, squirrels
  • 2- Estivation short term or summer torpor (high temperatures and water scarcity); fish, amphibians, reptiles
  • Both often triggered by length of daylight