Today’s Schedule of Your Visit. Presentation about CERN (~ 20 min) -- João BENTO A short film about CERN and particle physics (~ 10 min) A visit to CERN facilities (~ 1-2 hours). European Organization for Nuclear Research. What and where is CERN?
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Today’s Schedule of Your Visit Presentation about CERN (~ 20 min) -- João BENTO A short film about CERN and particle physics (~ 10 min) A visit to CERN facilities (~ 1-2 hours)
European Organization for Nuclear Research What and where is CERN? What does CERN do and how does CERN do it? LHC (The Large Hadron Collider) and its 4 experiments Particle physics and standard model Spin-off of the particle physics (e.g. WWW was invented at CERN) Summary
CERN member states • Founded in 1954 by 12 countries • Today: 20 member states • More than 7000 users from all over the world • ~1000 MCHF / Year budget 1954: Convention establishing the Organization - original signatures 2004: The 20 member states
CERN in Numbers • 2256 staff • ~700 other paid personnel • ~9500 users • Budget (2009) 1100 MCHF • 20 Member States:Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. • 1 Candidate for Accession to Membership of CERN: Romania • 8 Observers to Council:India, Israel, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, Turkey, the European Commission and Unesco 4
CERN's mission: to build particle accelerators Accelerator chain at CERN, a complex business
CERN site CERN 2nd site CERN main site CH - F Border SPS accelerator Geneva Airport LHC accelerator
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be the most powerful instrument ever built to investigate particles properties. • Four gigantic underground caverns to host the huge detectors • The highest energy of any accelerator in the world • The most intense beams of colliding particles • It will operate at a temperature colder than outer space
The LHC: what it will look like The LHC will start operation in October 2009. It will certainly change our view of the Universe
Preparing the LHC 27 km circumference 100 m underground SM18 Magnets Test Facility
Particle accelerator. How it works Polarité négative À un instant Le champ électrique Ligne de champ électrique entre électrodes Groupe d’électrons entre deux électrodes est accéléré Électron (négatif) accéléré Un peu après Zéro Groupe d’électrons dérivent dans le tube - + Encore un peu après Générateur de tension Polarité positive Groupe d’électrons à nouveau accélérées Électrodes plus longs, car électrons vont plus vite 1er terme de la loi de Lorentz Hendrik Lorentz (1853-1928) Accélération linéaire: - La particule avance tout droit Le champ électrique (tension) appliqué entre les deux plaques fait accélérer la particule selon une trajectoire rectiligne.
N Trajectoire de la particule I S Particle accelerator. How it works Accélération circulaire: - La particule effectue une trajectoire courbe Le champ magnétique crée par l’ aimant fait courber la particule 2ème terme de la loi de Lorentz Hendrik Lorentz (1853-1928)
The Synchrotron accelerator Le synchrotron – un accélérateur circulaire CAVITÉ RADIOFRÉQUENCE AIMANT DE COURBURE (DIPÔLES) AIMANT FOCALISATEUR (QUADRUPOLES) CHAMBRE À VIDE CIBLE
Methods of Particle Physics 1) Concentrate energy on particles (accelerator) 2) Collide particles (recreate conditions after Big Bang) 3) Identify created particles in Detector (search for new clues) http://pdg.web.cern.ch/pdg/particleadventure/
The constituents of matter Today’s periodic system of the fundamental building blocks The Atom’s Nucleus: Proton: 2/3 + 2/3 – 1/3 Neutron: 2/3 – 1/3 – 1/3
We don't know everything! Why three generations? There are three "sets" of quark pairs and lepton pairs. Each "set" of these particles is called a generation, or family. Each set of quark and lepton charge types is called a generation of matter (charges +2/3, -1/3, 0, and -1 as you go down each generation). The generations are organized by increasing mass.
We don't know everything! Supersymmetry? Some physicists attempting to unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have come to a startling prediction: every fundamental matter particle should have a massive "shadow" force carrier particle, and every force carrier should have a massive "shadow" matter particle. This relationship between matter particles and force carriers is called supersymmetry. For example, for every type of quark there may be a type of particle called a "squark." No supersymmetric particle has yet been found, but experiments are underway at CERN and Fermilab to detect supersymmetric partner particles.
We don't know everything! Higgs boson? The Standard Model cannot explain why a particle has a certain mass. For example, both the photon and the W particle are force carrier particles: why is the photon massless and the W particle massive? Physicists have theorized the existence of the so-called Higgs field, which in theory interacts with other particles to give them mass. The Higgs field requires a particle, the Higgs boson. The Higgs boson has not been observed, but physicists are looking for it with great enthusiasm. The LHC will help solving all these unsolved mysteries
Higgs signature at the LHC The two proton beams at the LHC will collide head-on 800 million times per second We expect only 1 Higgs in 1,000,000,000,000 events
Evolution of CERN computing needsCPU capacity 1998-2010 Other experiments LHC experiments Moore’s law 10K SI95 = 1200 cpu The number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits doubles every year and half
The GRID: a possible solution to CERN computing needs The LHC computing GRID is a project funded by the European Union. The objective is to build the next generation computing infrastructure providing intensive computation and analysis
Summary • CERN is the largest laboratory for particle physics research in the world • It was founded 57 years ago and has built the most powerful particle accelerator in the world in 2008 • The particle physics studies the matter in its smallest dimension and deepens the human being’s understanding about the nature • Research at CERN advances the development of technology, e.g. WWW was invented at CERN at the end of 1980’s • Welcome to CERN, we wish you have a pleasant visit