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Educational Philosophy. Presented by: Prof. Danielle Zimecki. What is philosophy?. Literally means love of wisdom An activity Noting what philosophers do Examining, synthesizing, analyzing, speculating, prescribing, and evaluating A set of attitudes

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educational philosophy

Educational Philosophy

Presented by:

Prof. Danielle Zimecki

what is philosophy
What is philosophy?
  • Literally means love of wisdom
  • An activity
      • Noting what philosophers do
      • Examining, synthesizing, analyzing, speculating, prescribing, and evaluating
  • A set of attitudes
      • Self aware, comprehensiveness, flexibility, penetration
  • Body of content
      • Reality, truth, value
  • Deals with the nature of reality
  • What is real?
  • Example: Floor
      • Solid, flat, smooth, color, wood or concrete, supports weight
      • Physicist
      • Chemist
  • Categories:
      • Cosmological
        • Origin, nature, and development of the universe in an orderly system
      • Theological
        • Religious theory that has to do with concepts of and about God
      • Anthropological
        • Study of human beings
      • Ontology
        • What it means for anything to be
  • Studies nature, sources, and validity of knowledge
  • What is true? How do we know?
  • Dependability of knowledge
      • Can reality be known?
      • Is truth relative or absolute?
      • Is knowledge subjective or objective?
      • Sources of knowledge – senses, revelation, authority, intuition, variety of resources
  • Propriety of various methods of researching warrantable truth
  • What is of value?
  • Rational individual and social life is dependent on values
  • What society conceives of being good or preferable
  • Ethics
      • Moral values and conduct
      • Are ethical standards and moral values absolute or relative?
      • Do universal moral values exist?
      • Does the end ever justify the means?
      • Can morality be separated from religion?
      • Who or what forms the basis of ethical authority?
  • Aesthetics
      • Principles governing the creation and appreciation of beauty and art
      • Should art be imitative and reprehensive, or should it be the product of private creative imagination?
      • Should the subject matter of artistic forms deal with the good in life only, or should it also include the ugly and grotesque?
      • What is good art?
      • Should art have a social function or message?
      • Can there be art for art’s sake, or must it have a practical significance?
  • Idealism asserts that, since the world is constantly changing, ideas are the only reliable form of reality.
  • Idealists
      • William E. Hocking, Plato
  • Idealism and education
      • The learner
        • Process of becoming more like the absolute self
        • Strives for perfection
      • The teacher
        • Serve as a living example of what students can become
  • Realism suggests that the features of the universe exist whether or not humans are there to perceive them.
  • Realists – Aristotle, Francis Bacon, John Locke
  • Realism and Education
      • The Learner
        • Functioning organism that can through sensory and experience, perceive the natural order of the world and thereby come into contact with reality
        • Not free in their choices
      • The Teacher
        • To give accurate information to the student
        • Teacher’s biases and personality muted
neo scholastism thomism
Neo-scholastism/ Thomism
  • Intellectual movement that developed in the 1300’s
  • Faith by reason
  • Combination of realism and idealism
  • Thomists – Thomas Aquinas, The teacher
        • Mental disciplinarians that can develop reason, will power, and memory
      • The student
        • Rational being that is capable of acquiring Truth and knowledge
  • Pragmatism rejects the idea of absolute, unchanging truth, instead asserting that truth is “what works.”
  • Pragmatists – Charles S. Pierce, William James, John Dewey
  • Pragmatism and education
      • The students
        • Students have experiences
        • Learn from their environment and react to their environment and consequences
      • The teachers
        • Seen as fellow learners
        • Guides
  • Existentialism suggests that humanity isn’t part of an orderly universe; instead, individuals create their own realities.
      • Refusal to belong to any school of thought
      • Dissatisfaction with traditional philosophy
  • Existentialists – Walter Kaufmann, Soren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, John Paul Sartre, Albert Camus
  • Existentialism and Education
      • The teacher
        • Willing to help students explore possible answers
        • Concerned with the individual learner
      • The learner
        • I am a choosing agent.
        • I am a free agent.
        • I am a responsible agent.
  • Perennialism suggests that nature, including human nature, is constant.
  • Return to classics – mind, reason,
  • Perennialists - Mortimer J. Adler, Robert M. Hutchins, St. John’s College
  • Beliefs
      • People are rational animals
      • Knowledge is universally consistent
      • The subject matter, not the child, should stand at the center of the educational endeavor.
      • The great works are relevant today.
      • The educational experience is preparation for life, rather than real-life situations
  • Essentialism emphasizes a critical core of knowledge and skills that all students should learn.
  • Combination of realism and idealism
  • Revamping of the school
  • Essentialists – Mortimer Smith, Arthur Bestor
  • Beliefs
      • The school’s first task is to teach basic knowledge.
      • Learning is hard work and requires discipline.
      • The teacher is the locus of classroom authority.
  • Report from government in 1983 – “A Nation at Risk”
      • Minimum standard for graduation
        • Four years English
        • Three years Math
        • Three years Science
        • Three years Social Studies
        • 1 and ½ years Computer Science
        • 2 years of Foreign Language for College Bound Students
  • Progressivism focuses on real-world problem solving and individual development.
  • Progressivists– John Dewey, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • Beliefs
      • The process of education finds its genesis and purpose in the child.
      • Pupils are active rather than passive.
      • The teacher’s role is of advisor, guide, fellow traveler, rather than that of authoritarian and classroom director.
      • The school is a microcosm of the larger society.
      • Classroom activity should focus on problem solving rather than on artificial methods of teaching subject matter.
      • The social atmosphere of the school should be cooperative and democratic.
  • Postmodernism contends that many of the institutions in our society, including schools, are used by those in power to marginalize those who lack power.
  • Rejection of the modern view of things
  • Postmodernists – Hume, Kant
  • Education
      • Very undeveloped
developing your philosophy of education
Developing Your Philosophy of Education
  • Philosophy can guide practice and help you explain and defend your educational goals.
  • The process of developing a philosophy begins with examining your own beliefs about teaching, learning, and students.
  • An analysis of educational philosophies can assist teachers in forming their own personal, and probably eclectic, personal philosophy.
philosophies of education in urban environments
Philosophies of Education in Urban Environments
  • Because of the challenges involved in urban teaching, developing a coherent philosophy of education is even more important.
  • Beliefs, both positive and negative, about urban learners can have profound influences on urban teachers and the way they teach.