Oxytocin in Mammals PoojaIyer Francesca Gines Andy Ngo
What is oxytocin? • Released during • Labor • Maternal Bonding • Social Recognition • Pair Bonding • Orgasm • Also known as the “Cuddle Hormone” Evokes feelings of: -contentment -calmness -reduces anxiety
Pituitary Gland • Oxytocin is secreted by the pituitary gland (the master of all hormones).
Is it lipid-based or peptide based? • Oxytocin is a peptide-based hormone; it is also known as a nonapeptide because it is formed by nine amino acids.
Feedback Cycle POSITIVE FEEDBACK
Oxytocin follows a SECOND MESSENGER Second Messenger • The G-protein in this pathway is known as the OXTR protein • The protein acts as a receptor for oxytocin • Its activity is mediated by G proteins which activates several other second messenger systems • The receptors are located in the myoepithelial cells in the mammary glands and in the myometrium and endometrium of the uterus.
What is the cellular response? • Oxytocin signals • the muscle cells of the uterus to contract • Milk release during lactation
Disruptions with Oxytocin • Continuous exposure to high doses of oxytocin leads to desensitization of the receptor. • Low levels of oxytocin are thought to be a contributing factor to autism • This explains why those with autism lack in the emotional and communication department.
Works Cited • https://www.headway.org.uk/hormonal-imbalances.aspx • http://www.google.com/patents/EP1449844A1?cl=en • http://killionr.wikispaces.com/Physiology • http://www.mindfulmamma.co.uk/2012/11/birth-oxytocin/ • http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2011/350546/fig1/