ACCESS TO RECOVERYANIISHNAABEK HEALING CIRCLE Understanding Our Journey Linda Woods, MSW
Personal Information • Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa & Chippewas tribal member, Peshawbestown • Began SA field in the mid 70’s – Native American program in San Jose, CA • Volunteer working with alcoholics when not working in the field (jail meetings, prison, etc) • Graduated MSW - San Jose University 1994 • Worked with SA clients in child welfare, CA • Working with the Anishinaabek for GTB, Inter-Tribal Council & in 2008 retired from Substance Abuse Director at Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians – Petoskey • Tribal Elder, Veteran (U.S.A.F. 1962-66), mother, grandmother
PURPOSE – The Journey • Understanding the Aniishnaabek journey • What happened? Who are we today? • Understanding the importance of our history • What is it like walking in our ‘moccasins’? • Exploring our cultural journey • Helping your clients embrace who they are today • Applying recovery principles
Learning Objectives • Knowledge & understanding culture of the Anishnaabek in Michigan • Tribal History – Ojibwe, Odawa, Bodawatomi • Clan System • Impact of Historical Trauma • Boarding Schools • Loss of Culture • Culture for Solutions: Medicine Wheel, Seven Grandfather/Grandmother Teachings, Sacred Plants & Medicines • Recovery Concepts for Native Americans
You will also learn : • Laughter is healing • Laughter is a powerful medicine that brings not only the spirit within happiness but brings healing as well to the body & mind. • We have learned to laugh at ourselves
Jokes You know it's time to lose weight when:* You can't see your moccasin strings anymore* You can't fit your choker, because you no longer have a neck* The car naturally tilts downward on the side you always ride on * You have to "lift" your stomach to show off your new beaded belt buckle
rez (reservation) dawgs How can you spot the difference between a regular canine and a Rez dog?Throw each one in the oven at 400 degrees for 20 minutes. The regular canine should come out tender and moist. The Rez dog will come out with a towel wrapped around his waist saying, "Dang that was a good sweat!"
Pre-Contact • “There was a time long ago when our people believed that all of creation was sacred and we were one” • 2 million indigenous people lived on ‘Turtle Island’ long before Europeans came to this land • “Indian” refers to what Columbus called the Native people, Indios thinking he was in the East Indies
Pre-Contact • Native people identified themselves based on their connection to their families, clan or tribe • Basic understanding of plant-based medicines – western: less than 10 plant based drugs; tribal people used more than 170 plant-based medicines • Philosophy of oneness with all of creation • No ‘abuse’ of plants – respected – minimized use of alcohol to ceremonial purposes
Early Days Post Contact15th – 18th Century • English, French, Dutch, Swedish, Spanish, Russians –East, South, North, West • Initial introduction of alcohol throughout • Initial response to alcohol was rather ‘benign’ - Rejection of alcohol • Change in patterns of drinking began to emerge
Tecumseh • “Touch not the poisonous firewater that makes wise men turn to fools and robs the spirit of its vision.”
NMEGOS • In the words of an Odawa prophet who voiced his prayer for our people: “….My Children, you may salute the Whites when you meet them, but must not shake hands … you must not drink one drop of whiskey. It is the drink of the evil spirit. It was not made by me-but by the Americans. It is poison. Neither are you on any account to eat bread. It is the food of the Whites.”
ANISHNAABEK • The name, Anishnaabek means The Original People that is a name given to the three tribes who have called this land their homeland for many centuries before European contact • The three tribes are: Ojibwe (Chippewa), Odawa (Ottawa), Bodewadmi (Potawatomi) = 12 Federally recognized tribes in Michigan today • share a common language base • Three Fires Confederacy
Tribal Contacts:Bay Mills Indian Community12140 W. Lakeshore Dr., Brimley, MI 49715906.248.3241 www.baymills.org Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians2605 N. Bayshore Dr., Suttons Bay, MI 49682866.534.7750 www.gtbindians.org Hannahville Indian CommunityN-14910 Hannahville B-1 Rd., Wilson, MI 49896906.466.2932 www.hannahville.net Keweenaw Bay Indian Community16429 Beartown Rd., Baraga, MI 49908906.353.6623 www.kbic-nsn.gov
Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa IndiansP.O. Box 249, Watersmeet, MI 49969 906.358.4577 www.lvdtribal.com Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians7500 Odawa Circle, Harbor Springs, MI 49740231.242.1400 www.ltbbodawa-nsn.gov Match-E-Be-Nash-She (Gun Lake Tribe)P.O. Box 218, 1743 142nd Ave., Dorr, MI 49323616.681.8830. www.mbpi.org Nottawaseppi Band of Huron Potawatomi2221 1-1/2 Mile Rd., Fulton, MI 49052269.729.5151 www.nhbpi.com
Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians58620 Sink RoadDowagiac, Michigan 49047 269-782-6323 www.pokagon.com Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe7070 E. Broadway, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858989.775.4000 www.sagchip.org Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians523 Ashmun St., Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783www.saulttribe.com Bureau of Indian Affairs2845 Ashmun St., Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783906.632.6809/877-659-5028 www.doi.gov
Three Fires Confederacy The three tribes interacted with each other like members of a family. The Ojibwa was referred to as the "older brother;“ the Odawa was the “middle brother” and the Potawatomi was the "younger brother." We are still family to each other today. Together, they formed the Three Fires Confederacy, a loose knit alliance that promoted their mutual interests.
The Ojibwa are the “Keepers of the Faith,“ • the Odawa are the “Keepers of the Trade” • and the Potawatomi are the “Keepers of the • Fire.” • There were Three Bundles (medicine): The • Ojibwa maintain the Midewin Lodge; The • Odawa had the Shaking Lodge; • The Bodéwadmi have the Wabano Lodge. • Fire (boodawaadam), which became the • basis for their name Boodewaadamii (Ojibwa • spelling) or Bodéwadmi (Potawatomi • spelling).
Using the Midewiwinscrolls, Potawatomi • elder Shup-Shewana dated the formation of • the Council of Three Fires to 796 AD at • Michilimackinac. • Though the Three Fires had several meeting • places, Michilimackinac became the preferred • meeting place due to its central location. From • this place, the Council met for military and • political purposes. • The Council generally had a peaceful • existence with its neighbors. • The Council also used the totem (or clan) • system as a promotion of trade.
CLAN SYSTEM • Ojibwe people organized themselves into grand families, called dodem or clans. • Originally six human beings that came out of the sea to live among us. These six beings, which were Wawaazisii (Bullhead), Ajejauk (Crane), Makwa (Bear), Moosance (Little Moose), Waabizheshi (Marten), and Bineshii (Thunderbird), created the original clans.
CLAN SYSTEM • 20 offshoots of the original clans • The clan system operated as a form of government, a method of organizing work, and a way of defining the responsibilities of each community member. • Working together, the clans attended to the physical, intellectual, psychological, and spiritual needs of the community. Each was known by its totem (animal emblem).
Characteristics of Clans • The Bird Clan represented the spiritual leaders of the people and gave the nation its vision of well-being and its highest development of the spirit. The people of the Bird Clan were said to possess the characteristics of the eagle, the head of their clan, in that they pursued the highest elevations of the mind just as the eagle pursues the highest elevations of the sky.
Characteristics of Clans • Crane (Ajejauk) clan members were known for their loud and clear voices and recognized as famous speakers. The Crane and the Loon Clans were given the power of Chieftainship. By working together, these two clans gave the people a balanced government with each serving as a check on the other.
Characteristics of Clans • The people of the Fish Clan were the teachers and scholars. They helped children develop skills and healthy spirits. • In the age-old tradition, clan members of the same clan respectfully acknowledged each other with the greeting "Aaniin (hello!) Dodem."
The Potawatomi • Approximately four thousand members lived in southern Wisconsin when the Europeans arrived, moved around the southern tip of Lake Michigan and settled in northern Indiana and southwestern Michigan in the early seventeenth century. • Called "the people of the place of the fire," the Potawatomi are considered among Michigan's earliest farmers, particularly famed for their medicinal herbal gardens
Per U.S. government policy many of them were forcibly relocated to Kansas and Oklahoma by the U.S. military. There is also a small band found in Mexico and another band near Bakersfield, • California. Another Band of Potawatomi are in • Canada, Walpole Island, near Sarnia. • Today, in Michigan there are bands of • Pottawatomi located in Shelbyville as the • Match-e-be-nash-she-wish Band (1999); the • Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi • in Fulton; the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi (1994) in Dowagiac, and the Hannahville Indian Community in Wilson, MI (upper peninsula).
ODAWA • The original homelands are located on Manitoulin Island in present day province of Ontario Canada and in the state of Michigan, they occupy the western half of the Lower Peninsula. • The Ottawa people were seasonal wanderers of the land and sailors of the Great Lakes gathering wild rice, netting fish, trapping both large and small game, and hunting large game such as moose, deer, and caribou.
As keepers of the trade, Ottawa people • were great traders and craftsmen. One • hallmark of Ottawa life is the birch bark • canoe. • They were noted among their • neighbors as intertribal traders • and barterers, dealing “chiefly in • cornmeal , sunflower oil, fur and • skin, rug and tobacco, and • Medicinal root and herb. • They allied with the French against the British and Chief Pontiac led a rebellion against the British at Fort Detroit in 1763.
Today, Ottawas are located: • Harbor Springs is the headquarters of the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa (1994), serving 21 counties; • Manistee is the headquarters of the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians (1994); • Peshawestown is the headquarters of the Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa & Chippewa Indians serving 6 counties (1980); • There are other bands in Michigan that are not as yet “federally recognized” such as the Grand River Band of Ottawa near Muskegon and the Burt Lake Band of Ottawa in Emmet County; • The Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma • WikwemikongUnceded Indian Reserveon Manitoulin Island, Wikmemikong, Canada
OJIBWA • The Ojibwe (also Ojibwa or Ojibway) or Chippewa (also Chippeway) are among the largest groups of Native Americans-First Nations. They are the third-largest in the U.S., surpassed only by Cherokee and Navajo. They are equally divided between the United States and Canada. • Originally they came from the eastern areas of North America, or Turtle Island and from along the east coast.
OJIBWA • Known for their birch barkcanoes, sacred birch bark scrolls, the use of cowrie shells, wild rice, copper points,& for their use of gun technology from the British to defeat and push back the Dakota nation of the Sioux (1745). • Historically, they traded widely across the continent for thousands of years and knew of the canoe routes west and a land route to the west coast.
Today • Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Sault Ste. Marie, MI • Bay Mills Indian Community, Brimley, MI • Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Indians, 1988, Watersmeet, MI • Keweenaw Bay Indian Community Lake Superior Band of Chippewa Indians, 1936, Baraga, MI • Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe, Mt. Pleasant, MI
Historical Trauma • Refers to the oppression that occurred with the Anishinaabek people since contact (all Native peoples) • Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart offers this Definition: The collective emotional and psychological injury both over the life span and across generations, resulting from a cataclysmic history of genocide
Historical Trauma Causes: • • Legacy of genocide from U.S. Govt. policies: • Legacy of broken treaties • Loss of land: Indian Removal Act, 1830: which • was the policy of the U.S. government to • relocate Native American tribes living east of • the Mississippi River to lands west of the • river forcibly, targeting the Five Civilized Tribes • but affect several other tribes. • The Potawatomi Trail of Death Sept 4 to Nov 4, • 1838, 859 members of the Potawatomi from the • Indiana region were forced to move to Kansas • & Oklahoma, led to death of over 40, mostly • children due to stress & typhoid fever.
RESERVATIONS • As treaty after treaty ceded land which the Ojibwa never identified as their own possession but rather as caretakers of Mother Earth, the final Treaty of 1854 created the reservation life-style and made a substantial impact upon our people. This occurred all across Indian Country.
RESERVATIONS • The reservations stripped them of their way of life, disintegrated all concepts of cultural leadership as it was known through the clan system, forced localization, prevented normal commerce of gathering and hunting, and sought to establish an agrarian culture on a people who had no experience with agriculture on land that was hostile to agriculture. • The Dawes Act of 1887 broke up the reservations into individual allotments of land.
Loss of Culture/Language/Spirituality – fear of Indians having secret ceremonies or “uprisings” so policy was developed to prohibit ceremonial practices. Many tribal peoples went “underground” with their ceremonies to survive. • Effects: • • Unsettled trauma • Unresolved grief • • Increase of substances (alcohol), child abuse, suicide, unhealthy lifestyles and domestic violence, other forms of violence (lateral).
Boarding Schools • 1st school: Carlisle, Pennsylvania in 1879 by Capt. Benjamin Pratt in an attempt to forcibly assimilate the Native people; approx 140 tribes were affected; was considered the model school of 26 boarding schools across the U.S. • Children were recruited by trickery; hundreds of children died at the school; abuses of all forms took place; harsh military structure; punishment hard labor/confinement
Boarding Schools • Life at the boarding schools was often a shock. One girl recalled being held down as her hair was cut short. She said, "among our people" only "cowards" wore short hair. Another student remembered that attending a boarding school was like being "suddenly dumped" into "another world, helpless, defenseless, bewildered, trying desperately and instinctively to survive it all."
Many were beaten, raped • Native language prohibited because of being • forced to speak the English language and were • punished if caught speaking their own • language • Lasting effect: • Destruction of Family structure • Lack of parenting skills • Relocation & Assimilation • Racism/ viewed as 2nd class • Spiritual prohibition • Loss of culture • Alcoholism, domestic violence, high suicide • rates among our young, all forms of abuse.
Boarding Schools • Native American boarding schools in the United States were seen as the means for the government to achieve assimilation of American Indians, which it believed was the best way for them to live in the changing society. By having the children in boarding schools, they could be educated together in majority culture. The boarding schools separated American Indians from non-Indian students.
Boarding Schools • There were over five hundred Indian boarding schools across this continent. As mentioned previously twenty-six of them were operated by the government with Carlisle being the model for all of them, the residential schools in Canada included. • The philosophy was the same for all residential schools ~ “Kill the Indian, save the man!” • “Kill the Indian, and Save the Man”: Capt. Richard H. Pratt on the Education of Native Americans
Kill the Indian, Save the Man: The Genocidal Impact of American Indian Residential Schools is a 2004 book by Ward Churchill. It traces the history of removing Native American children from their homes to residential schools (in Canada) or Indian boarding schools (in the USA) as part of government policies, 1880s-1980s, which the author views as genocidal.
By 1900 thousands of Native Americans were studying at almost 150 boarding schools around the United States. The U.S. Training and Industrial School founded in 1879 at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, was the model for most of these schools. Boarding schools like Carlisle provided vocational and manual training and sought to systematically strip away tribal culture. They insisted that students drop their Indian names, forbade the speaking of native languages, and cut off their long hair. Not surprisingly, such schools often met fierce resistance from Native American parents and youth.
But some Indian young people responded positively, or at least ambivalently, to the boarding schools, and the schools also fostered a sense of shared Indian identity that transcended tribal boundaries. The following excerpt (from a paper read by Carlisle founder Capt. Richard H. Pratt at an 1892 convention) spotlights Pratt’s pragmatic and frequently brutal methods for “civilizing” the “savages,” including his analogies to the education and “civilizing” of African Americans.
Excerpt (from a paper read by Carlisle founder Capt. Richard H. Pratt at an 1892 convention): “A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one, and that high sanction of his destruction has been an enormous factor in promoting Indian massacres. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man….”