ACCESS TO RECOVERY ANIISHNAABEK HEALING CIRCLE. Understanding Our Journey Linda Woods, MSW. Personal Information. Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa & Chippewas tribal member, Peshawbestown Began SA field in the mid 70’s – Native American program in San Jose, CA
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Understanding Our Journey
Linda Woods, MSW
who they are today
You know it's time to lose weight when:* You can't see your moccasin strings anymore* You can't fit your choker, because you no longer have a neck* The car naturally tilts downward on the side you always ride on
* You have to "lift" your stomach to show off your new beaded belt buckle
How can you spot the difference between a regular canine and a Rez dog?Throw each one in the oven at 400 degrees for 20 minutes. The regular canine should come out tender and moist. The Rez dog will come out
with a towel wrapped around his waist
saying, "Dang that was a good sweat!"
firewater that makes wise
men turn to fools and robs
the spirit of its vision.”
“….My Children, you may salute the Whites when you meet them, but must not shake hands … you must not drink one drop of whiskey. It is the drink of the evil spirit. It was not made by me-but by the Americans. It is poison. Neither are you on any account to eat bread. It is the food of the Whites.”
Tribal Contacts:Bay Mills Indian Community12140 W. Lakeshore Dr., Brimley, MI 49715906.248.3241 www.baymills.org
Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians2605 N. Bayshore Dr., Suttons Bay, MI 49682866.534.7750 www.gtbindians.org
Hannahville Indian CommunityN-14910 Hannahville B-1 Rd., Wilson, MI 49896906.466.2932 www.hannahville.net
Keweenaw Bay Indian Community16429 Beartown Rd., Baraga, MI 49908906.353.6623 www.kbic-nsn.gov
Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa IndiansP.O. Box 249, Watersmeet, MI 49969 906.358.4577 www.lvdtribal.com
Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians7500 Odawa Circle, Harbor Springs, MI 49740231.242.1400 www.ltbbodawa-nsn.gov
Match-E-Be-Nash-She (Gun Lake Tribe)P.O. Box 218, 1743 142nd Ave., Dorr, MI 49323616.681.8830. www.mbpi.org
Nottawaseppi Band of Huron Potawatomi2221 1-1/2 Mile Rd., Fulton, MI 49052269.729.5151 www.nhbpi.com
Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians58620 Sink RoadDowagiac, Michigan 49047 269-782-6323 www.pokagon.com
Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe7070 E. Broadway, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858989.775.4000 www.sagchip.org
Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians523 Ashmun St., Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783www.saulttribe.com
Bureau of Indian Affairs2845 Ashmun St., Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783906.632.6809/877-659-5028 www.doi.gov
The three tribes interacted with each
other like members of a family.
The Ojibwa was referred to as the "older
brother;“ the Odawa was the “middle
brother” and the Potawatomi was the
"younger brother." We are still family to
each other today.
Together, they formed the Three Fires
Confederacy, a loose knit alliance that
promoted their mutual interests.
famed for their medicinal herbal gardens
Per U.S. government policy many of them were forcibly relocated to Kansas and Oklahoma by the U.S. military. There is also a small band found in Mexico and another band near Bakersfield,
The collective emotional and psychological injury both over the life span and across generations, resulting from a cataclysmic history of genocide
Loss of Culture/Language/Spirituality – fear of Indians having secret ceremonies or “uprisings” so policy was developed to prohibit ceremonial practices. Many tribal peoples went “underground” with their ceremonies to survive.
Kill the Indian, Save the Man: The Genocidal Impact of American Indian Residential Schools is a 2004 book by Ward Churchill. It traces the history of removing Native American children from their homes to residential schools (in Canada) or Indian boarding schools (in the USA) as part of government policies, 1880s-1980s, which the author views as genocidal.
By 1900 thousands of Native Americans were studying at almost 150 boarding schools around the United States. The U.S. Training and Industrial School founded in 1879 at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, was the model for most of these schools. Boarding schools like Carlisle provided vocational and manual training and sought to systematically strip away tribal culture. They insisted that students drop their Indian names, forbade the speaking of native languages, and cut off their long hair. Not surprisingly, such schools often met fierce resistance from Native American parents and youth.
But some Indian young people responded positively, or at least ambivalently, to the boarding schools, and the schools also fostered a sense of shared Indian identity that transcended tribal boundaries. The following excerpt (from a paper read by Carlisle founder Capt. Richard H. Pratt at an 1892 convention) spotlights Pratt’s pragmatic and frequently brutal methods for “civilizing” the “savages,” including his analogies to the education and “civilizing” of African Americans.
Excerpt (from a paper read by Carlisle founder Capt. Richard H. Pratt at an 1892 convention):
“A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one, and that high sanction of his destruction has been an enormous factor in promoting Indian massacres. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man….”
Destroyed family system
Abuse of various forms
Education – trained for lower class jobs
Loss of culture & language
Loss of spirituality & ceremony, identity & abuse of all forms occurred there.
On January 3, 1893, the U.S. government opened an Indian boarding school at Mt. Pleasant, Michigan. It offered a nine-year program, beginning with kindergarten. By 1911 the Mt. Pleasant school had eleven buildings, including
both the girls and boys dormitories.
Hearing stories today about
this school is both touching
& painful ~ i.e., my mother
described it educational while
My dad described it as brutal.
Some Indian parents opposed sending their children away to learn "the white man's ways." However, the poverty & hopelessness of living on reservations (or Indian settlements) led other parents to hope that these boarding schools promised their children a better life. However, most of the time the government took Indian children & forced them to attend the school miles away so the parents could not afford to visit them.
English was the school's official language, and students might have their mouth washed out with soap if they spoke their native Indian language.
Violating the rules led to punishment, which could be harsh. Sometimes students were beaten with a strap or rubber hose. Some endured the school; others ran away.
The Mt. Pleasant Indian School closed in 1933.
This Indian school was founded in 1829 by Father Pierre Dejean. The Indians built a church and the first school building, a hewn-log structure 46' by 20'. The school was both a boarding and day school, with 25 boarders in its initial enrollment of 63 Indian boys and girls, who were taught, in French, the three "R's" and vocational skills. The original intent was described as “good” in order to provide Indian children an education.
Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart found a distinct link between Historical Trauma & the Jewish Holocaust.
Brave Heart suspected that, like the children of Jewish Holocaust survivors, generations of Americans Indians have suffered from what happened to their ancestors, i.e., trauma & Grief is passed on to children & grandchildren of survivors; which continues today through alcohol-related accidents, homicide, and suicide. Sometimes referred to as “Blood Memory” or unresolved grief.
According to a past report by the Dept. of Justice the Native American population still experiences a mortality rate that is 400 per cent higher than any other population, indicating unique to this population.
Dr. Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart:
“Once you recognize where these emotions come from, then you can find a healthy way to deal with them. We believe that our traditional cultural and spiritual ways have natural ways to help people do that. They were very wise in that way.”
The healing we experience also heals our ancestors.
Tribe – ask what tribe they are. They may or may not know because of our history. This is especially true in an urban area where there are many tribal people. There are over 500 tribes to consider; we’ve just discussed the 3 main tribes here in Michigan. In an urban area you will probably see many different tribal people that are not from Michigan. If they are familiar with their tribal heritage, ask them to share it with you. If they don’t know, they may feel some shame about it because this was possibly passed down from their parents or grandparents.
Remember the language was taken from them or were told they were “savages” or “drunken Indians” or other discriminatory things.
Unfortunately, racism is still alive and well here in Michigan and many of us can recall discrimination or racist remarks.
I remember up to the 1950’s -60’s Indians could not be served in some places, i.e. the local tavern or bar. I remember being spit upon as an 8-yr little girl, imagine the traumatic scar that left upon me! This was a common occurrence for many of us.
So trust is a major issue you will have to deal with and how you do so will reflect if you are successful with this client.
The story is deep in their hearts. It has been told in legends and dances, in dreams and in symbols. It is in the songs a grandmother sings to the child in her arms and in the web of family names, stories, and memories that the child learns as he or she grows older. above all of the long, stubborn struggle through which the Anishnaabe tried to preserve their own ways and their own identity.
MNO-BMAADZIWIN - GOOD LIFE
Sweat Lodge – prayer; led by spiritual person; traditionally it was primarily male – due to alcoholism the male forgot their responsibilities to the sweat lodge & women assumed the responsibilities of the lodge to maintain the health of the community. This is the reason that today there are mixed lodges in honor of the women for what they did for us. This is a cleansing ceremony.
All we do in recovery as we discover ourselves whether through the 12 Step process, finding church, tribal traditional ways or ceremonial ways or a combination both or through nature is all spiritual. Each must find their own spiritual path. If they are earnestly seeking they will find it. It takes time, it does not come overnight or quickly (like most of us want). Each must define their own spirituality for themselves. Treating ourselves and others with Respect is spirituality.