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Information Flow

Information Flow

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Information Flow

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  1. Information Flow CSSE 490 Computer Security Mark Ardis, Rose-Hulman Institute April 22, 2004

  2. Overview • Information Flow Models • Confinement Flow Model • Compiler-Based Mechanisms

  3. Bell-LaPadula Model • Information flows from A to B iff B dom A TS{R,P} TS{P} TS{R} S{R} S{P} S{}

  4. Entropy-Based Analysis • Command sequence takes a system from state s to state t • xs is the value of x at state s • H(a | b) is the uncertainty of a given b • Def: A command sequence causes a flow of information from x to y if H(xs | yt) < H(xs | ys). If y does not exist in s, then H(xs | ys) = H(xs)

  5. Example Flows y := x H(xs | yt) = 0 tmp := x; y := tmp; H(xs | yt) = 0

  6. Another Example if (x==1) then y:= 0 else y := 1 Suppose x is equally likely to be 0 or 1, soH(xs) = 1 But, H(xs | yt) = 0 So, H(xs | yt) < H(xs | ys) = H(xs) Thus, information flows from x to y. Def. An implicit flow of information occurs when information flows from x to y without an explicit assignment of the form y := f(x)

  7. Requirements for Information Flow Models • Reflexivity: information should flow freely among members of a class • Transitivity: If b reads something from c and saves it, and if a reads from b, then a can read from c A lattice has a relation R that is reflexive and transitive (and antisymmetric)

  8. Information Flow Models • An Information flow policy I is a triple I = (SCI, I, joinI), where SCI is a set of security classes, I is an ordering relation on the elements of SCI, and joinI combines two elements of SCI • Example: Bell-LaPadula has security compartments for SCI, dom for I and lub as joinI

  9. Confinement Flow Model • Associate with each object x a security class x • Def: The confinement flow model is a 4-tuple (I, O, confine, ) in which • I = (SCI, I, join I) is a lattice-based info. flow policy • O is a set of entities •  : O  O is a relation with (a, b)  iff information can flow from a to b • for each a  O, confine(a) is a pair (aL, aU)  SCI SCI, with aLIaU • if x  aU then information can flow from x to a • if aL x the information can flow from a to x

  10. Example Confinement Model Let a, b, and c  O confine(a) = [ CONFIDENTIAL, CONFIDENTIAL] confine(b) = [SECRET, SECRET] confine(c) = [TOPSECRET, TOPSECRET] Then a  b, a  c, and b  c are the legal flows

  11. Another Example Let a, b, and c  O confine(a) = [ CONFIDENTIAL, CONFIDENTIAL] confine(b) = [SECRET, SECRET] confine(c) = [CONFIDENTIAL, TOPSECRET] Then a  b, a  c, b  c, and c  a are the legal flows Note that b  c and c  a, but information cannot flow from b to a because bLIaU is false So, transitivity fails to hold

  12. Non-LatticeInformation Flow Policies Government agency has public relation officers (PRO), analysts (A), and spymasters (S) 4 classifications of data: public  analysis, public  covert analysis  top-level, covert  top-level confine(PRO) = [public, analysis] confine(A) = [analysis, top-level] confine(S) = [covert, top-level] PRO  A, A  PRO, PRO  S, A  S, and S  A

  13. Complier-Based Mechanisms • Assignment statements • Compound statements • Conditional statements • Iterative statements

  14. Assignment Statements y := f(x1, ..., xn) Requirement for information flow to be secure is: lub {x1, ..., xn} y Example: x := y + z; lub{y, z} x

  15. Compound Statements begin S1; ... Sn; end; Requirement for information flow to be secure: S1 secure AND ... AND Sn secure

  16. Conditional Statements if f(x1, ..., xn) then S1; else S2; end; Requirement for information flow to be secure: S1 secure AND S2 secure AND lub{x1, ..., xn}  glb{y | y is the target of an assignment in S1 or S2}

  17. Example Conditional Statement if x + y < z then a := b; else d := b * c - x; end; ba for S1 lub{b, c, x} d for S2 lub{x, y, z}  glb{a, d} for condition

  18. Iterative Statements while f(x1, ..., xn) do S; Requirement for information flow to be secure: Iteration terminates S secure lub{x1, ..., xn}  glb{y | y is the target of an assignment in S}

  19. Example Iteration Statement while i < n do begin a[i] := b[i]; i := i + 1; end; Loop terminates i a[i] AND b[i]a[i] for S1 lub{i, b[i]} a[i] for compound statement lub{b[i], i, n}  glb{a[i], i} for while condition