Compare these two rivers: Which one is easier to navigate? Why?
It doesn’t mean that one cannot navigate this river. However, it is a lot more difficult.
Similarly, if we can make the information flow without interruption, we will have a text that is much easier to read and understand.
To accomplish that, there are language devices writers use. This is what you will need to focus on for the SAC They are called COHESIVE DEVICES because they provide cohesion to ones writing COHESION = easy, clear flow of information
“Cohesive devices are words, phrases or techniques that connect ideas. You may think of these devices as anchors that hold you ideas together” (Inside Academic Writing, p. 40-41)
Cohesive devices include: • Clear connection between the topic sentence and the other sentences in the paragraph • Discourse markers between sentences • Repetition of key words, phrases or information from sentence to sentence. • Logical progression of ideas with previously know information before new information
Metalanguage • factors that contribute to a text’s coherence: cohesion, inference, logical ordering, formatting, • consistency and conventions • • factors that contribute to a text’s cohesion: information flow including clefting, front focus and • end focus; anaphoric and cataphoric reference; deictics; repetition; synonymy, antonymy and • hyponymy; collocation; ellipses; substitution; conjunctions and adverbials • • features of spoken discourse: pauses, false starts, repetition, repairs, openings and closings, • adjacency pairs, overlapping speech, interrogative tags, and discourse particles • • strategies in spoken discourse: topic management, turn-taking, holding the floor, minimal responses • • conventions for the transcription of spoken English.
Discourse markers Discourse Markersare used to indicate the relationship between sentences or paragraphs. They signal the direction the author wants the text to take. Ex: Science and religion are often seen as antagonistic fields. However, several scientist are deeply religious people. (the word HOWEVER indicates the author wants to introduce an idea that contrasts with the previous one.
Discourse markers can indicate several relationships: Here are some of them:
Repetition of key elements Repeating some of the key elements of the paragraph helps create unity. Try to identify patterns of repetition with sentence types, words or phrases that indicate a logical flow of information.
For example: Writing is not just about conveying ‘content’ but also about the representation of self. (One of the reasons people find writing difficult is that they do not feel comfortable with the ‘me’ they are portraying in theirwriting. Academic writing in particular often poses a conflict of identity for students in higher education, because the ‘self’ which is inscribed in academic discourse feels alien to them.) How does this help to achieve the texts purpose and function?
Previously mentioned and new information An English language reader will expect that a text develops from something they already know or expect to the new information. This will obviously contribute to the logical flow of ideas and or instructions. This aids as a building block for the text to achieve its purpose.