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Antebellum america

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Antebellum america

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  1. Antebellum america

  2. Lead up to the Civil War

  3. Manifest Destiny • The belief that it was God’s will that America spread west to the Pacific Ocean • Most people believed this • The country spread west with… • Texas • Mexican American War • California Gold Rush • Presidents supported people moving west

  4. Annexation of Texas • Annexation- the process where a territory or country is added to another country • Texas was part of Mexico • White settlers outnumbered Hispanic citizens • Texas declared independence and fought a war with Mexico • Alamo • Texas asked Congress to become a state • Congress added Texas as a state in 1845. • It took a while because Texas allowed slavery

  5. Mexican-American War • Mexico was upset over the United States annexing Texas • They invaded Texas • The United States invaded Mexico • The United States won the war (1846-1848) • Results • United States got the Northern territories of Mexico • Make up all or parts of 7 states today • The United States now stretched to the Pacific Ocean

  6. Manifest Destiny

  7. California Gold Rush • In 1848, Gold was discovered in the new California Territory • In 1849, many people moved west to get rich from the gold • Helped to settle California • In 1850, California had enough people to become a state • Problem- would it allow slavery or not?

  8. Sectionalism • Sectionalism- the belief by a people in a region that their ideas or interests are more important then others • Around 1850, it was clear America was divided into 3 sections with 3 different views of the country • Most noticeable were between North and South • States rights- the belief that a state’s interests should be more important then the national interests • States rights concerns: Slavery and Tariffs (taxes on goods from other countries)

  9. North-South DivisionWho would control the new states in the west?

  10. Differences between the north and south were many. The big issues were: SLAVERY STATES’ RIGHTS TARRIFS The Southern culture was very different from the north as well

  11. Southern Culture • Planters- plantation owners who owned most of the slaves, top of the social ladder, only about 3% of population • Yoeman farmer- poor white farmers, did NOT own slaves (too poor), made up about 75% of the population • Free blacks- only 6% lived in the south • Slaves were at the very bottom of society, but not all slaves had the same life

  12. Slave society • Overseer- the person who managed the slaves on a plantation. Usually white • Driver- the person who usually worked the slaves in the field. Usually black • House slaves generally had a more comfortable life and were generally treated better • Field hands had the hardest life and generally treated worst

  13. Issues leading to the Civil War Economy Slavery What would new states support?

  14. Southern Economy • By 1800, the economy in the south wasn’t growing • Tobacco was hurting the soil • Eli Whitney’s cotton gin helped make cotton a money making crop • As cotton production increased… • The economy of the south grew • The cost of slaves increased • The number of slaves needed by planters increased

  15. Abolitionists • Abolition- the movement to end slavery • Abolitionists supported it • Most were in the North • The movement started with religious movements • The movement angered many southerners • Frederick Douglass • Famous abolitionist, orator (public speaker), and newspaper editor • Freed black who worked to end slavery

  16. Efforts to avoid war • The differences between the north and south were growing • Many efforts were made to avoid a “civil war • Efforts to avoid the Civil War include: • The Missouri Compromise • Compromise of 1850 • The Kansas-Nebraska Act • Some factors continued to lead to war • Factors leading to the Civil War • Dred Scott Decision • Activities of abolitionists and spread of abolitionism • The Republican party and Lincoln’s election

  17. Missouri Compromise • In 1819, there were 22 states • 11 free states- states that outlawed slavery • 11 slave states- states that allowed slavery • Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state • A compromise was reached • Missouri was allowed as a slave state • Maine was allowed as a free state • No states above Missouri’s southern border were allowed to have slavery • Kept the peace for a while

  18. Dred Scott Decison • In 1834, Dred Scott, a slave, traveled with his master from Missouri (a slave state) to Wisconsin (a free state) • In 1857, Scott, after he and his master returned to Missouri sued for his freedom (since he had lived in a free state (Wisconsin) • The case went to the Supreme Court • The Supreme Court ruled: • Dred Scott could not sue because he was a slave and slaves are NOT citizens • This angered many in the north and got both sides closer to war.

  19. Compromise of 1850 California enters as a “Free State” Slave trade ends in Washington DC Texas will not annex western territories Utah & NM territories decide their own “slavery” issues Fugitive Slave Law inacted …runaway slaves must be returned

  20. Kansas-Nebraska Act New territories will test the concept of popular sovereignty … The idea that the population vote on their own future of slavery 1st tested in 1854 when the Kansas population grew high enough to consider applying for statehood Pro-slavery people from the South & Abolitionists from the North moved into the territory to shift the vote their way People brought their weapons & began open conflict … This “mini Civil War” became known as BLEEDING KANSAS

  21. SLAVERY Marriage was encouraged, but not legally recognized Religious practices were allowed, but education outlawed Planters & politicians feared slave rebellions SLAVE CODES were established … these rules regulated almost every aspect of slave life. EX: A slave leaving the plantation MUST have documents stating their business, destination, time frame, etc

  22. Help for Slaves John Brown was hanged as punishment for unsuccessful raid on a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA … & became a martyr Nat Turner led the bloodiest slave revolt in US history … 1831, VA, about 80 dead … he was captured & hanged Underground RR … a secret series of safe houses where escaping slaves could rest on their journey to freedom in the north Harriet Tubman escaped, but returned to help others do the same Sojourner Truth was freed when NY abolished slavery & spent her life preaching to others about the horrors of slavery


  24. 1860 ELECTION • 1854- Republican Party founded (abolitionists) • Democrats could not agree on a single candidate & so ran against each other • Abraham Lincoln gets less than 40% , but wins • Southern states threaten to secede • Lincoln promised NOT to impact slavery • Stephens asked GA politicians NOT to secede • Dec. 20, 1860 SC secedes … leaves the US • 1/19/61: GA votes (2:1) = Independent Republic • 2/4/61 … Confederate States of America formed • {SC, GA, FL, AL, MS, LA, & TX} … Davis (MS) = Pres., Stephens (GA) = VP, Toombs (GA) = Sec St

  25. CIVIL WAR • Chapter 8