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Functions of major hardware components of a computer system. Objective. At the end of the lesson, students should be able to: Explain the functions of the major hardware components of a computer system. Central Processing Unit (CPU). Handles the processing of the computer.

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objective
Objective
  • At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
    • Explain the functions of the major hardware components of a computer system.
central processing unit cpu
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Handles the processing of the computer.
  • Controls the transfer of data between memory and other devices.
  • Consists of two (2) smaller units – Control Unit (CU) and Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
control unit
Control Unit
  • This unit controls the overall operations of the CPU.
  • Directs the operation of components that process the data.
  • Controls the flow of programs and data in and out of primary memory (main memory)
  • Read and interpret program instructions
  • Control the flow of information to and from all components of the computer.
arithmetic logic unit
Arithmetic Logic Unit
  • Performs arithmetic operations. These operations include: addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, etc.
  • Performs logical operations. These operations include: reasoning and performing the comparisons necessary to make decisions.
primary storage
Primary storage
  • Also referred to as main memory/ immediate access storage.
  • Is directly accessible to the CPU
  • Holds data and instructions that are currently being processed (temporary).
  • There are two (2) types of primary storage (both use chips):
    • Random Access Memory (RAM)
    • Read Only Memory (ROM)
random access memory
Random Access Memory
  • Contents are temporary and are volatile ( lost when the computer is turned off)
  • Stores the instructions and data for currently running programs and the operating system
  • Computer can access data held in RAM immediately
read only memory
Read Only Memory
  • Contents are permanent and non-volatile (not lost when the computer is turned off).
  • Used to store commands such as those used to boot up the computer.
  • These instructions are read, cannot be changed and are available every time the computer boots up.
  • These instructions are programmed into the ROM chips by the manufacturer.
secondary storage
Secondary Storage
  • Also referred to as backing storage or auxilliary storage.
  • Refers to media and methods used to keep programs, data and information available for later retrieval.
  • Not built on chips. Some examples are:
    • Hard disks Magnetic tape
    • Floppy disks Microflim
    • CD’s / DVD’s
input devices
Input Devices
  • These devices are used to enter commands and data into the computer.
  • Several devices are available each with its own applications, advantages and disadvantages.
output devices
Output Devices
  • These devices are used to display information that has been processed to the users.
  • There are two types of output devices:
    • Hardcopy (permanent) – it is tangible. E.g. Data printed on paper
    • Softcopy (temporary) – such as displays on a screen or speech from a speech synthesizer
peripheral devices
Peripheral devices
  • These are devices that make up the computer system apart from the motherboard, its associated electronics and main memory.
peripheral devices13
Peripheral devices
  • E.g
    • Input Devices – keyboard, mouse, joystick, OMR (Optical Mark Reader), OCR (Optical Character Reader), MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader).
    • Storage Devices – magnetic tape drive, hard drive, floppy drive.
    • Output Devices – printers, VDU (Visual Display Unit), speakers.
references
References
  • Oxford Information Technology for CXC CSEC by Glenda Gay, Ronald Blades
  • CXC Information Technology by Kelvin Skeete