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Classification of Organisms. Chapter 17. Table of Contents. Section 1 Biodiversity Section 2 Systematics Section 3 Modern Classification. Section 1 Biodiversity. Chapter 17. Objectives. Relate biodiversity to biological classification.

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table of contents

Classification of Organisms

Chapter 17

Table of Contents

Section 1 Biodiversity

Section 2 Systematics

Section 3 Modern Classification

objectives

Section 1 Biodiversity

Chapter 17

Objectives
  • Relatebiodiversity to biological classification.
  • Explainwhy naturalists replaced Aristotle’s classification system.
  • Identifythe main criterion that Linnaeus used to classify organisms.
  • Listthe common levels of modern classification from general to specific.
classifying organisms

Section 1 Biodiversity

Chapter 17

Classifying Organisms
  • Naturalists have invented several systems for categorizing biodiversity, which is the variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems.
taxonomy

Section 1 Biodiversity

Chapter 17

Taxonomy
  • Naturalists replaced Aristotle’s classification system because it did not adequately cover all organisms and because his use of common names was problematic.
  • Taxonomyis the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms.
taxonomy continued

Section 1 Biodiversity

Chapter 17

Taxonomy, continued
  • The Linnaean System
    • Carolus Linnaeus devised a seven-level hierarchical system for classifying organisms according to their form and structure.
    • From the most general to the most specific,the levels are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family,genus, and species.
linnaeus s levels of classification

Section 1 Biodiversity

Chapter 17

Linnaeus’s Levels of Classification

Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept

levels of classification

Section 1 Biodiversity

Chapter 17

Levels of Classification
  • Binomial Nomenclature
    • An important part of Linnaeus’s system was assigning each species a two-part scientific name—a genus name, such as Homo, and a species identifier, such as sapiens.
    • This system of a two-part name is known as binomial nomenclature.
objectives1

Section 2 Systematics

Chapter 17

Objectives
  • Identifythe kinds of evidence that modern biologists use in classifying organisms.
  • Explainwhat information a phylogenetic diagram displays.
  • Statethe criteria used in cladistic analysis.
  • Describehow a cladogram is made.
  • Discusshow proteins and chromosomes are used to classify organisms.
  • Explaincladistic taxonomy, and identify one conclusion that is in conflict with classical taxonomy.
phylogenetics

Section 2 Systematics

Chapter 17

Phylogenetics
  • A modern approach to taxonomy is systematics, which analyzes the diversity of organisms in the context of their natural relationships.
  • When classifying organisms, scientists consider fossils, homologous features, embryos, chromosomes, and the sequences of proteins and DNA.
phylogenetics continued

Section 2 Systematics

Chapter 17

Phylogenetics, continued
  • A phylogenetic diagram displays how closely related a subset of taxa are thought to be.
phylogeny

Section 2 Systematics

Chapter 17

Phylogeny

Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept

phylogenetics continued1

Section 2 Systematics

Chapter 17

Phylogenetics, continued
  • Evidence of Shared Ancestry
    • Homologous features as well as similarities in patterns of embryological development provide information about common ancestry.
cladistics

Section 2 Systematics

Chapter 17

Cladistics
  • Cladisticsuses shared, derived characters as the only criterion for grouping taxa.
cladistics continued

Section 2 Systematics

Chapter 17

Cladistics, continued
  • Molecular Cladistics
    • Molecular similarities (such as similar amino acid or nucleotide sequences), as well as chromosome comparisons, can help determine common ancestry.
cladistics continued1

Section 2 Systematics

Chapter 17

Cladistics, continued
  • Chromosomes
    • Analyzing karyotypes can provide more information on evolutionary relationships.
cladistics1

Section 2 Systematics

Chapter 17

Cladistics

Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept

objectives2

Section 3 Modern Classification

Chapter 17

Objectives
  • Describethe evidence that prompted the invention of the three-domain system of classification.
  • Listthe characteristics that distinguish between the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
  • Describethe six-kingdom system of classification.
  • Identifyproblematic taxa in the six-kingdom system.
  • Explainwhy taxonomic systems continue to change.
the tree of life

Section 3 Modern Classification

Chapter 17

The Tree of Life
  • Revising the Tree
    • The phylogenetic analysis of rRNA nucleotide sequences by Carol Woese led to a new “tree of life” consisting of three domains aligned with six kingdoms.
three domains of life

Section 3 Modern Classification

Chapter 17

Three Domains of Life
  • The three domains areBacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
three domains of life continued

Section 3 Modern Classification

Chapter 17

Three Domains of Life, continued
  • Domain Bacteria
    • Domain Bacteria aligns with Kingdom Eubacteria, which consists of single-celled prokaryotes that are true bacteria.
three domains of life continued1

Section 3 Modern Classification

Chapter 17

Three Domains of Life, continued
  • Domain Archaea
    • Domain Archaea aligns with Kingdom Archaebacteria, which consists of single-celled prokaryotes that have distinctive cell membranes and cell walls.
three domains of life continued2

Section 3 Modern Classification

Chapter 17

Three Domains of Life, continued
  • Domain Eukarya
    • Domain Eukaryaincludes the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
    • All members of this domain have eukaryotic cells.