C H A P T E R S I X . CONSUMER BEHAVIOR. Irwin/McGraw-Hill. AFTER READING THIS CHAPTER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:. Outline the stages in the consumer decision process. Distinguish among three variations of the consumer decision process: routine, limited, and extended problem solving.
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Information search:Seeking value
Purchase decision: Buying value
Post-purchase behavior: Value in consumption of user
The evoked set is the group of brands, based on
one’s evaluative criteria, that a consumer would
consider acceptable from all the brands in the
product class which he or she is aware of.
Brand Model Price Headphones Correction Bumps Speed
(A CR best buy)
Deciding What New Car To Buy
Factor Percent Saying Factor is Most Important
Ease of maintenance/repair 61%
Quality compared to other brands 61%
Price compared to other brands 58%
High-quality brand 54%
Style/look of brand 46%
Consumer computer-mediated buying, or online
buying, is the use of Internet technology to:
a. Seek information
b. Evaluate alternatives &
c. Make purchase decisions
This technology also allows marketers to customize
their offering to the specific needs of individuals,
thereby increasing customer value and satisfaction.
Cognitive Dissonance is a
feeling of post-purchase
psychological tension or
anxiety. To alleviate
consumers often search for information to
reinforce their purchase decision.
High Involvement purchase occasions can be
expensive, have serious personal consequences,
and/or reflect one’s social image. These
occasions typically involve extensive information
search, consideration of several product
attributes and brands, the formation of
attitudes, and word-of-mouth communication.
An example would be the purchase of an
automobile or stereo system.
Low Involvement purchase occasions
typically involve little information search
or consideration of various brands, except
on the basis of price. They usually don’t
involve any personal consequences. They
tend to be privately consumed. An
example would be the purchase of soap or
Characteristics of Extended Limited Routine
purchase decision problem problem problem
process solving solving solving
Number of brands Many Several One
Number of sellers Many Several Few
Number of productMany Moderate One
Number of external Many Few None
information sources used
Time spent searchingConsiderable Little Minimal
PP6-3 Comparison of problem-solving variations
Routine problem solving
(e.g., milk and bread)
Limited problem solving
(e.g., small appliances)
Extended problem solving
(e.g., stocks and bonds)
Marketing mix influences
Consumer Decision Process
1. What is the first step in the consumer
2. The brands a consumer considers
buying out of the set of brands in a
product class of the consumer is aware is called the ____________.
3. What is the term for post-purchase anxiety?
Status, respect, prestige
Friendship, belonging, love
Freedom from harm, financial security
Food, water, sex, oxygen
PP6-C Selective perception filters
Subliminal perception means that you see or hear
messages without being aware of them. The presence
and effect of subliminal perception on behavior is a
hotly debated issue, with more popular appeal than
Evidence suggests that subliminal messages have some
effect on behavior. If so, is their use an ethical
practice? See the accompanying Ethics and
Perceived Risk represents anxieties felt because the
consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase
but believes that there may be negative consequences.
Perceptions of greater perceived risk are usually
accompanied by a more extensive external information
search concerning a purchase.
Types of Perceived Risk:
Learning refers to those behaviors that result from:
1. repeated experience
Behavioral Learning is the process of developing
automatic responses to a situation built up through
repeated exposure to it.
Cognitive Learning is learning via thinking, reasoning,
and mental problem solving without direct experience.
Brand Loyalty is a favorable attitude toward and consistent
purchase of a single brand over time.
(Percent of U.S. consumers with strong brand preference)
Baked macaroni & cheese
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
An attitude is a learned predisposition to respond to an
object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or
unfavorable way. Attitudes are shaped by our values and
Beliefs are a consumer’s subjective perception of how well
a product or brand performs on different attributes.
Beliefs are based on personal experience, advertising, and
discussions with other people.
Values are deeply held attitudes and beliefs, which are
resistant to change, but which may change over time.
Lifestyle is a mode of living that is identified by how
people spend their time and resources (activities), what
they consider important in their environment
(interests), and what they think of themselves and the
world around them (opinions).
Lifestyle analysis focuses on identifying consumer
profiles. The most prominent example of this type of
analysis is the Values and Lifestyles (VALS) Program
developed by SRI International.
Enjoy the "finer things."
Receptive to new products,
Skeptical of advertising.
Frequent readers of wide
variety of publications
Light TV viewers.
Follow fashion and fads.
Little interest in image
Attracted to premium products
Spend much of disposableincome on socializing.
Prime target for variety of products
Above-average consumers of
products for the home
Buy on impulse.
Average TV watchers, read business, news, and self-help publications
Like educational and public
Attend to advertising.
Listen to rock music.
Shop for comfort,durability, value.
Slow to change habits.
Limited discretionary incomes, but carry credit balances.
Unimpressed by luxuries.
Look for bargains.
Buy the basics, listen to radio.
Watch TV more than average.
Spend on clothing and personal care products.
Read auto, home mechanics,fishing, outdoormagazines.
Read retirement, home and garden, and general
Prefer TV to reading.
Use coupons and watch for sales.
Watch TV often.
Read tabloids and
1. The problem with Toro Snow Pup was
an example of selective ____________.
2. What three attitude change approaches
are most common?
3. What does lifestyle mean?
Sociocultural influences, which evolve from a
consumer’s formal and informal relationships with
other people, can exert significant impact on consumer
behavior. Sociocultural influences include:
1. Personal influence
2. Reference groups
3. The Family
4. Social Class
Personal Influence includes two aspects
that are very important to marketers:
1. Opinion Leadership
2. Word of Mouth
What carto buy
Where to get
PP6-E Word of mouth influence
(Percent of men and women who seek advice regarding selected products and services)
Reference groups are people to whom an individual
looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of
personal standards. Three kinds of reference groups
that have clear marketing implications are:
1. Membership group
2. Aspiration group
3. Dissociative group
The family life cycle concept describes
the distinct phases that a family
progresses through from formation to
retirement, each phase bringing with
it identifiable purchasing behaviors.
Young divorced without children
Middle-aged divorced without children
Young marriedwithout children
Middle-aged married without children
Middle-aged married without dependent children
Middle-aged divorced without dependent children
Traditional family flow
PP6-7 Modern family life cycle
Social Class may be defined as the relatively
permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society
into which people sharing similar values,
interests, and behavior can be grouped. Social
class is determined by:
2. Source of income (not level)
3. Educational attainment
Culture refers to the set of values, ideas,
and attitudes that are accepted by a
homogeneous group of people and
transmitted to the next generation.
Subcultures are subgroups within a larger,
or national culture with unique values,
ideas, and attitudes.
Percent owning among . . . .
Compact disk player
1. What are the two primary forms of personal influence?
2. Marketers are concerned with which types of reference groups?
3. What two challenges must marketers overcome when marketing to Hispanics?