INFO 380 Information Systems Analysis and Management. Instructor: Greg Hay TA: Yuan Lin. Agenda: Midterm Review. Review of slides I think are important. Information Management. What is knowledge?. Information Management. What is a system?. Information Management.
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INFO 380Information Systems Analysis and Management Instructor: Greg Hay TA: Yuan Lin
Agenda: Midterm Review • Review of slides I think are important
Information Management • What is knowledge?
Information Management • What is a system?
Information Management • What are the goals of a system?
Information Management • “Organize or Die” • Human learning based on organizing & analyzing • Those that were effective at building systems survived • Examples?
Information Management • Definition of information system • An information system (IS) is an arrangement of people, data, processes, and information technology that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support an organization.
Information Management • What makes ‘better’ Information Systems?
Systems Analysis • Organizations are continually changing • People: employees, managers, board of directors • Relationships: vendors, suppliers • Technology • Legal requirements • Customer needs • Market opportunities: product\service offerings
Information Systems Development • End Goals • meets or exceeds customer expectations • reaches completion within timeestimates • reaches completion within cost estimates
Systems Analysis • Many reasons for project failures • Lack of clear leadership or ownership • Lack of communication • People\groups working in isolation • Too long of a lag between check-ins • Requirements change
Systems Analysis • More reasons for project failures • Groups making own decisions • what is easiest versus best for project • Lack of technical skill at key positions • People afraid to call manure • Unrealistic expectations • ‘scope-creep’ and\or feature creep • Lack of commitments ($, time, follow-through)
Why Projects Fail Doing the right thing, and doing it right http://www.codeproject.com/KB/work/WhySoftwareProjectsFail.aspx
Systems Analysis • How do we increase the odds of having a successful project? • Strong leader as Project Manager (critical) • Part technician • Part business manager • Part salesperson • Part coach • Part police officer • Part comedian, magician and babysitter
Systems Analysis • How do we increase the odds of having a successful project? • Communication • Getting stakeholders to agree on expectations • Understanding impact our work has on other teams • Organized and systematic check-ins • Immediate addressing of problems
Systems Analysis and Design • Information System • An arrangement of: • People • Data • Processes • Information technology • All interact to collect, process, store and provide as output information needed to support an organization
Systems Analysis and Design • Example Systems • Transaction Processing System (TPS) • Management Information System (MIS) • Decision Support System (DSS) • Expert System • Communications and Collaboration System • Office Automation System
Information Management • Remember: ‘Organize or Die’ • Human learning based on organizing & analyzing • Those that were effective at building systems survived • Systems analysis is the process of continually re-evaluating our organizational processes: • What do we need to do to ‘get better’ or adapt? • What are competitive pressures that will impact our ability to survive?
Business Drivers • Globalization of the Economy • Electronic Commerce and Business • Security and Privacy • Collaboration and Partnership • Knowledge Asset Management • Continuous Improvement and Total Quality Management • Business Process Redesign
Stakeholders • Throughout any organization • System Owners • Users • Customers • Suppliers and Partners • Information Workers • Knowledge Workers • Administrators • Product Planners • Project Managers • System Designers • Process Engineers • User Experience Professionals • System Builders • Trainers and User Support • Others
System Development Process • Definition • A set of activities, methods, best practices, deliverables and automated tools that stakeholders use to develop and maintain information systems and software.
Analysis Feasibility Describe Existing Sys. Describe New System Design Implementation Build System Convert Main. & Evaluation Audit and Main. Feedback Loop System Development Process
Problem Statement • Why do we create a problem statement? • How problem is stated often determines solution • Effective problem statements fuel creativity • Chewing on a problem statement lessens the opportunity to miss the obvious or commit to a course of action that won’t work
Problem Statement • What makes a good problem statement? • Articulates what we need to focus on solving • Identifies customer(s) • Summarizes customers’ view of the problem • States when the customer(s) need a solution • Defines scope of the problem solution • time • money • resources
Problem Statement • Why do we create a problem statement? • Comes back to communication; to be effective, everyone needs to understand the problem together, with a common understanding. • Sometimes thousands of people are issued the same problem statement: • Microsoft: developers to focus on ‘secure code’
What are the goals of Systems Analysis? Deliver on promises: • Features • Value defined by client • Timeframe • ‘On time’ • Money • On/under budget • Up-front expense • On-going maintenance
How do we improve our odds of success? • Repeatable process • Measure effectiveness • Document what worked • Learn from our mistakes
Information Systems Development • How to choose an appropriate methodology? • Industry • Experience • Business culture • Expense and risk of project
Why have a standard process? • Efficiencies are gained and quality improves • consistent process allows for clarity of status • better visibility of ‘where we are’ • better ability to adjust efforts & resources as needed
Why have a standard process? • Efficiencies are gained and quality improves • consistent process allows for learning • What went well? What did not? • documentation reduces costs • New people get up to speed quicker • Knowledge is shared versus hoarded
Principles of System Development • Get the system users involved • Use a problem-solving approach • Establish phases and activities • Document through development • Establish standards • Manage the process and projects • Justify systems as capital investments • Don’t be afraid to cancel or revise scope • Divide and conquer • Design systems for growth and change
System Analysts • Specialists • A programmer/analyst (or analyst/programmer) includes the responsibilities of both the computer programmer and the systems analyst. • A business analyst focuses on only the non-technical aspects of systems analysis and design. • A user analystfocuses on the experience users have with the systems and processes
System Analysts • Problem Solvers • Anticipates issues that require corrective action • Recognizes opportunities to improve a situation • often in absence of complaints
System Analysts • Most departments have analysts • Financial Management • Human Resources • Operations • Research and Development • Information Services
Where Do Systems Development Projects Come From? • PIECES Framework (James Wetherbe) • Need to correct or improve: • Performance • Information • Economics (control costs or increase profits) • Control (security) • Efficiency (people and processes) • Service (customers, suppliers, partners, employees)
Where Do Systems Development Projects Come From? • Problem – an undesirable situation that prevents the organization from fully achieving its purpose, goals, and/or objectives • Opportunity – chance to improve the organization even in the absence of an identified problem • Directive - requirement imposed by management, government, or some external influence
Analyzing Data • Results: • Analysis emerges from the interaction of data • Stay faithful to the facts • Keep an eye on the big-picture • What is the impact going to be in fixing problem? • People • Process • Economics • Competitiveness
Stakeholders • A stakeholder is any person who has an interest in an existing or proposed information system. Stakeholders can be technical or nontechnical workers. They may also include both internal and external workers. • Information workers are those workers whose jobs involve the creation, collection, processing, distribution, and use of information. • Knowledge workers are a subset of information workers whose responsibilities are based on a specialized body of knowledge.
Writing Assignment #1 • What is significant about the Winchester House in California? • How might someone make a metaphor of this home in regards to Information Technology development projects?
Information Management • How information is defined and managed can add value to organizations: • Data • Information • Knowledge/Learning • Wisdom
Information: Improve Relationships • Data • What questions need to be answered? • Which relationships are important? • How can those relationship get stronger? • What data is available to help do that? • How do we obtain that data? • How will that data fit into our system? • Do we need a new system component? • Who will use data? How? To what end?
Information: Improve Relationships • Metrics provide ‘information on information’ • How effective is the information? • Do we have gaps? • WHERE do we have gaps? • Data • Information • Knowledge/Learning • Wisdom:
Systems Analysis: Deeper Dive • Scope Definition • Problem Analysis • Requirements Analysis • Logical Design Phase • Decision Analysis Phase
Scope Definition • Intended to validate problem\opportunity • Quickly determine if problem is worth effort to fix • Define scope and perceived problems • Preliminary investigation on impact to organization • “Does this project have legs?”
Scope Definition • Deliverable: Project Charter • Scale • Development strategy • Schedule • Resource requirements • Budget
Scope Definition: Task 1 • Identify Baseline Problems\Opportunities • Deliverable is Preliminary Problem Statement • Which are most urgent? • Which may have biggest gain or upside?
Scope Definition: Task 1 • Identify Baseline Problems\Opportunities • Deliverable is Preliminary Problem Statement • What are potential obstacles? • Deadlines • Budget • Technology constraints
Problem Analysis • Deliverable: System Improvement Objectives • Criteria for measuring improvements • Expectations of stakeholders • Identifies constraints that will challenge goals • Deadlines • Budget • Technology limitations