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“Back to the Future”. SOL World History II: 1500 to the Present Flashcards in reverse chronological order. Built by Gamal Abdul Nasser in Egypt Built on Nile River Created Hydroelectricity for the country of Egypt in the 1960’s Flooded Nubian relics/artifacts. Aswan High Dam.

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back to the future

“Back to the Future”

SOL World History II: 1500 to the Present Flashcards in reverse chronological order

slide2

Built by Gamal Abdul Nasser in Egypt

  • Built on Nile River
  • Created Hydroelectricity for the country of Egypt in the 1960’s
  • Flooded Nubian relics/artifacts
slide4

Female Prime Minister of Israel

  • A close ally of the United States
  • Fought 6 Day War, as well as Operation Wrath of God following Munich Olympics of 1972
slide6

Partitioned from the country of Palestine following WWII by the newly formed United Nations

  • Caused a great deal of animosity between Jews and Muslims
  • Close ally of the United States
slide8

Fought against South African apartheid system

  • Imprisoned for 27 Years
  • Became the first Black African President of South Africa in 1993
  • “There is no easy walk for freedom anywhere”
slide10

Means “apartness”

  • Government program in South Africa to separate the races with the white minority (Afrikaner) population holding the majority of the land and power
  • Ended in 1989
slide12

First president of an independent Kenya, following independence from Great Britain

  • Supported the Mau Mau rebellion against the British
slide14

Former colony of France in Northern Africa

  • White “Settler” Colony with 2 million French citizens “colons” who lived there
  • Violent fight for independence from France in the 1960’s…ultimately won
slide16

Formerly named the Gold Coast, when it was a colony of Great Britain

  • Gained its independence from Great Britain
  • Relied on cacao as its main cash crop
  • Led by Kwame Nkrumah
  • Named after a famous African civilization
slide18

Created by the United Nations in 1947

  • Promise that the members of the United Nations would never led another genocide, like the Holocaust, happen again
  • Also guaranteed self-determination
slide20

1st Prime Minister of independent India

  • Close friend of Mohandas Gandhi
  • Worked to modernize India
  • Father of Indira Gandhi
slide22

1947: This country was divided into two separate countries with a Muslim population in the north, and a Hindu population in the south.

  • Great deal of fighting as 10 million people were on the move on the subcontinent
  • Still considered the most dangerous border
slide24

Known as the “great soul” of India

  • Led movement for passive resistance
  • Salt March, Hunger Strikes
  • Greatly saddened by the partition of India
  • Was assassinated by a Hindu extremist who felt he gave away too much to the Muslims
slide26

Formed in India in the late 1800’s

  • Mostly made up of elites (doctors, professionals, etc.) who wanted to work diplomatically for the independence of India from Great Britain
slide28

Leader of Communist People’s Republic of China during the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989

  • Allowed limited capitalism into China
slide30

Last leader of the Soviet Union

  • Implemented glasnost and perestroika
  • Only VIP from World History who is still alive
slide32

Part of Mikhail Gorbachev’s campaign

  • Means economic restructuring, allowing for some limited capitalism
  • Contributed to the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991
slide34

Prime Minister of Britain in the 1980’s

  • Known as the “Iron Lady”
  • Close ally with Ronald Reagan
slide36

Daughter of Nehru

  • Prime Minister of India
  • Oversaw the creation of the atomic bomb for India (“Operation Smiling Buddha”)
  • Assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards in 1984 after she ordered an attack on the Sikh Golden Temple
slide38

Communist leader of Vietnam

  • Led resistance against the French and then the United States
  • Leader of the Vietcong and the successful Tet Offensive
slide40

Nationalist leader of China

  • Supported by the United States
  • Took over island of Taiwan and ruled it as Nationalist China
slide42

Idea that if the United States launched their nuclear arsenal at the USSR, the USSR would launch their nuclear arsenal at the USA

  • Total end of the world
slide44

Idea that if one place fell to Communism, then the other would follow

  • Justified the idea of Containment, as well as frequent US involvement in Asia and Latin America during the Cold War
slide46

Conflict between the USSR and the USA

  • Followed the failed Bay of Pigs invasion
  • Stand-off between President Kennedy (USA) and Premier Khruschev (USSR)
  • As a result, US promised to never invade Cuba again and remove missiles from Turkey and USSR removed their missiles from Cuba
slide48

Line of Division between North and South Korea, drawn by the United Nations

  • North of this line = communist, South of the this line= non-communist
  • North Korean invaded South Korea, UN helped South Korea push back North Koreans, who were then aided by China
  • After war- border returned to same line
  • Ceasefire (not Peace)
  • Still an area of conflict today
slide50

Built in 1961

  • Divided former capital of Germany
  • Torn down in 1989
  • Guards were ordered to “shoot to kill”
slide52

Organization formed following WWII

  • Replaced League of Nations
  • Has its own Peace-Keeping Force
slide54

Phrase coined by Churchill

  • Figurative divide in Europe between capitalism and communism
  • Between Eastern and Western Europe
slide56

US joined alliance following WWII

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
slide60

Truman’s Policy against communism

  • Don’t let it spread any further
  • Justification for US involvement in Korea and Vietnam
slide62

Court for former Nazi leaders

  • Sentenced to death- hanged and then bodies were cremated in ovens at Dachau
slide66

2 ethnic groups fighting in Rwanda

  • Genocide in April 1994
  • “cut down the tall trees”
slide68

Leader of Khmer Rouge in Cambodia

  • “Killing Fields”
  • Closed borders and outlawed money
  • Died of a heart attack before he could be tried for War Crimes
slide70

Genocide during WWI

  • Deportation of Christians by Turks
  • 2 million died
slide72

Hitler’s “Master Race”

  • Blond Haired/ Blue- Eyed
slide76

Leader of Japan

  • Forced to renounce his divinity as part of terms of unconditional surrender at end of WWII
slide78

Leader of the Nazi Party

  • Took over Germany
  • Anti-Semitism
  • Orchestrated the Holocaust, which he called the “final solution”
slide80

Prime Minister of Englandduring WWII

  • Inspired British during the Battle of Britain
  • Coined the phrase “Iron Curtain”
slide82

US extended money and credit to recovering countries in Europe to try and make them capitalistic and encourage democracies

slide84

US President during much of WWII

  • Orchestrated the New Deal to try and bring the United States out of the Great Depression
slide86

August 6th, 1945

  • 1st Atomic bomb dropped by the United States on this Japanese City
slide88

December 7th, 1941

  • Japanese attack on Hawaiian naval base
  • FDR called it “a date which will live in infamy”
slide90

Hitler violated his treaty with Stalin and invaded Russia

  • The Nazi’s were ultimately defeated at this conflict
slide92

German aerial attack on London and other cities

  • 1940
  • “Keep Calm and Carry On”
slide94

German invasion of this country officially began WWII

  • The secret Hitler-Stalin non-aggression pact, agreed to divide up this country between Germany and USSR
slide96

Meeting between Hitler and Chamberlain

  • Hitler would maintain control of Sudetenland
  • Example of appeasement (giving into an aggressor to maintain peace)
  • Chamberlain returned to Britain and proclaimed there would be “Peace in our Time”
slide100

Japanese General

  • In charge of attack on Pearl Harbor
  • Executed following WWII
slide102

Mussolini invaded Ethiopia to try and restore the glory of _____________

  • Capital of Italy
  • Last area to join in the unification of Italy (Papal States)
slide104

Extreme Nationalism

  • Implemented in Italy by Mussolini
slide106

Stalin’s plan for silencing anybody he perceived to be a threat

  • Millions in the USSR were sent to Siberian labor camps or killed
slide108

Term for discrimination against Jews

  • Hitler applied this in Germany
slide114

October 29th, 1929

  • “Black Tuesday”
  • In the United States, but had global ramifications
  • Beginning of the Great Depression
slide116

Tax on foreign goods

  • Attempt to make Americas “buy American”
  • Foreign governments then taxed American goods, decreasing US exports
slide118

Set up following WWI to rule former territories of Ottoman Empire in Middle East

  • Middle East was outraged and felt this was just neo-colonialism on the part of Europe
slide120

Mandates of Great Britain following WWI

  • Organized by the League of Nations
slide122

Mandates of France following WWI

  • Set up by the League of Nations
slide124

Leader of USSR following Lenin

  • 5 Year Plans
  • The Great Purge
  • “Man of Steel”
slide126

Leader of Bolsheviks

  • Inspired by Marxism
  • Snuck back into Russia by Germans in a sealed boxcar
  • After Bolshevik Revolution, led Russia
slide128

October 1918

  • Overthrow of the Provisional Government by Lenin and Trotsky and the Red Guard
  • Signed separate peace treaty with Germany to get Russia out of WWI
slide130

“Strange Monk”

  • Infiltrated Russian High Society
  • Close advisor to Alexandra and her hemophiliac son, Alexei
  • Assassinated
slide132

Last Romanov leader of Russia

  • Led Russia during WWI
  • Forced to abdicate the throne, later executed (along with entire family) by the Bolsheviks
slide134

1905

  • Conflict over control of a Peninsula in East Asia
  • Russia lost, great embarrassment of Russia, Nicholas II lost support
slide136

Wilson’s 14th Point

  • Organization to mediate conflict to try and avoid war
  • United States was NOT a member (US senate didn’t ratify the Treaty of Versailles)
slide138

Germany was forced to accept blame for WWI

  • One of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles
  • Caused a lot of resentment in Germany, because Germans felt they were just helping their ally Austria-Hungary, and didn’t start WWI themselves
slide140

Ended WWI

  • Punished Germany
  • Set up Mandates in the former Ottoman Empire
  • In many ways, led to WWII
slide142

Telegram sent from Germany to Mexico

  • Asked Mexico to invade US and regain Texas and American Southwest
  • Provoked US to enter WWI
slide144

Passenger Cruise Ship sunk by German U-boats

  • 128 Americans died
  • Pushed US towards entering WWI
slide146

Dominant method of fighting on Western Front during WWI

  • Stalemate
  • Fought over “no man’s land”
slide148

Assassinate with wife Sophia by GavrilloPrincip

  • Spark that began WWI
  • Killed in Sarajevo, Bosnia
slide152

“society of Harmonious Fists”

  • Rid China of “foreign devils” (Christians)
  • Also against Qing Dynasty
  • 1898-1900
slide154

Commodore of US Navy

  • Forced Japan to open its borders to trade with United States
slide156

Built in Egypt to connect the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea

  • Controlled by Great Britain until nationalized by Nasser in the 1960’s
slide158

Held 1884-1885

  • Carved up the Continent of Africa
  • 2 Rules:
  • -can’t claim land already controlled by another European country
  • -control the “natives”
slide160

Area where a country HAS to trade with another country

  • Formerly called enclaves
  • Example: China
slide162

Country’s government directly controlled by it’s “mother country”

  • For economic benefit of the Mother Country
slide164

Industrialized countries’ quest for cheap raw materials and markets for their goods

  • Occurred in Africa and Asia
slide166

Prime Minister of Prussia

  • Instrumental in the unification of Germany
  • Realpolitik
  • Blood and Iron
slide168

Army of Giuseppe Garibaldi

  • Helped liberate Southern Italy
  • Helped in Unification of Italy
slide170

Co-author of Communist Manifesto (with Frederich Engels)

  • Believed capitalism resulted in unequal distribution of wealth
  • Worker’s revolt to socialism to communism
slide172

Economic system in the United States

  • Free Market Economy
  • Limited government involvement
slide174

Key tool of unions

  • Negotiate on behalf of its members for wages/working conditions, etc.
slide176

The right to vote

  • Movement for the right to vote for women- most countries granted after WWI
  • US 19th Amendment (1920)
slide178

Organizations for workers

  • Represented the workers in negotiations with companies
  • Most potent weapon= strikes
slide180

Favorite group to be employed by many factories

  • Paid ½ of woman’s wages
  • Eventually led to compulsory elementary education
slide182

Unregulated factories

  • Disposal of bi-products of industries
  • Damaging to environment
slide184

The movement to live in cities

  • Greatly increased during the Industrial Revolution
  • Overcrowding
slide186

Invented the steam engine

  • Unit of measurement named after him
  • Steam engine originally pumped water out of mines
slide188

Created to make a stronger steel process

  • Steel used to build during 2nd Industrial Revolution
slide190

Discovered germs and bacteria

  • Process to heat liquids (like milk) to kill off bacteria
slide192

Created by Edward Jenner

  • Injection of less potent strain to build immunity in body
slide194

Invented by Eli Whitney

  • Removed seeds
  • Led to an increased reliance on slavery in the American South
slide196

Invention of James Hargreaves

  • Could produce thread 6x faster
  • Named after his daughter
slide198

M&M’s

  • 2 Major Goals of Imperialism
slide200

Early form of capitalism

  • Division of labor to produce goods
  • Product travelled from house to house
slide202

Fencing off of lad by wealthy landholders

  • Poor farmers displaced to urban centers
  • Allowed for scientific farming and experimentation
slide204

Began in England in 1750

  • Began with textiles
  • Using machines and factories to make cheap manufactured goods
slide206

1823 by US President

  • US in charge of Western Hemisphere
  • Any attempt of European countries to reclaim Americas= personal attack on USA
slide208

Born on Iberian Peninsula

  • Had highest positions in New World
  • Ex: Viceroys
  • Resented by Creoles
slide210

Part of Castas

  • Mixed European and African descent
  • Born in the Americas
slide212

Part of Castas

  • Mixed European and Indian ancestry
  • Born in the Americas
slide214

Part of castas system

  • European descent, born in the Americas
  • Inspired by Enlightenment
  • Led Revolutions in Latin America
slide216

Spanish plantations

  • Replaced the encomiendas
  • Utilized slave labor
  • In Latin America
slide218

Liberal movements against conservative governments in Hungary, Czech Republic

  • Violently put down
  • “Song of Angry Men”
slide220

1815

  • Series of meetings held in Austria
  • Led by Klemens von Metternich
  • Restructure Europe following Napoleon
slide222

Goal of Klemens von Metternich

  • Each European country was equal
  • Overturned with the Unification of Germany in 1870
slide224

System of Laws

  • Organized Roman Law in France
slide226

French general

  • Took control of France with a coup d’etat in 1799
  • Extended French territory through Europe
  • Defeated at Waterloo 1815
slide228

Grant of land and indigenous laborers from King of Spain

  • Extremely harsh
  • De las Casas helped to end them
  • Replaced by African slavery
slide230

“The Liberator”

  • Creole who led independence movements in Latin America against Spain
  • Presided over Gran Columbia
slide232

Former slave

  • Led independence of Haiti (St. Domingue)
  • Died in a French prison
slide234

Novel written by Cervantes

  • Delusional old man who fought windmills
  • Man of La Mancha
  • “To dream the impossible dream…”
slide236

Composer of Classical Music

  • Eccentric
  • Music for fun and entertainment
slide238

Composer of Baroque Music

  • Felt music glorified God
  • Songs for the pipe organ
slide240

King of France during the French Revolution

  • Married to Marie Antoinette
  • Executed by guillotine
slide242

Took control of France as head of the Committee of Public Safety

  • Outlawed Christianity
  • Calendar changed to 3 10 weeks (so people would forget when Sundays were)
slide244

Time of fear and mass executions in France

  • Under Robespierre
  • 40,000 French citizens killed
slide246

French execution device

  • “Great Equalizer”
  • “National Razor”
  • Reign of Terror
slide248

July 14th, 1789

  • Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution
  • Parisians obtaining gunpowder
slide250

1776

  • Penned by Thomas Jefferson
  • Inspired by the Enlightenment
  • “men are endowed by their creator, with certain inalienable rights, amongst these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”
slide254

Title of Rousseau’s Book

  • Agreement between government and the people
slide256

Montesquieu’s idea

  • Power was a check to power
  • United States= 3 branches of government
slide258

Natural Rights of John Locke

  • Inspired Thomas Jefferson
slide260

Sea Monster

  • Title of Thomas Hobbe’s book
  • Government needs to be strong, like a sea monster
slide264

Agreed to by William and Mary in 1689

  • Extended protection to Englishmen
slide266

1st Constitutional Monarchs of England

  • Took over after James II
  • Bill of Rights
  • Virginia College
slide270

When Charles II took over as King of England

  • “king that brought back partying”
slide272

Puritan

  • Leader of England
  • Outlawed singing, dancing, theatre as “sinful”
slide274

Main goal of Peter the Great

  • Make Russia more like Europe
slide276

The “Sun King” of France

  • “L’etat, c’estmoi”… “I am the state”
  • Built Versailles as a symbol of his royal power
  • Absolute Monarch