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Introduction to the experiments of Physics 407. Franck-Hertz. Franck-Hertz experiment: confirmation of quantized atomic energy levels. 1 st evidence: Spectrum from a low-pressure mercury lamp. Franck-Hertz. Sketch of Franck-Hertz Apparatus. Collecting plate is slightly

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franck hertz experiment confirmation of quantized atomic energy levels

Franck-Hertz

Franck-Hertz experiment: confirmation of quantized atomic energy levels

1st evidence: Spectrum from a low-pressure mercury lamp

sketch of franck hertz apparatus

Franck-Hertz

Sketch of Franck-Hertz Apparatus

Collecting plate is slightly

negative compared to grid –

so only those electrons

above an energy threshold

will reach it.

Positively charged grid

accelerates electrons

+

Heated cathode

produces electrons

Current from collector

measured as a

function of

accelerating voltage.

after Krane

accelerating voltage

slide5

Hall effect

Hall effect with negative charge carriers

+

Fm = magnetic

force on

negative charge

carriers

Fe = electric force

from charge

buildup

Direction of conventional

Electric current

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu

hall effect in semiconductors

Hall effect

Hall effect in semiconductors

Dominated by positive carriers.

Dominated by negative carriers.

johnson noise

Johnson noise

Cause:

Thermal motion

Johnson Noise

 0 Vrms??

+

brownian motion more evidence for thermal motion

Brownian motion

Nakroshis et al. AJP71(2003) 568

Brownian motion:more evidence for thermal motion

Perrin’s Atoms

state space of a dynamical system

Chaos

State space of a dynamical system

IDEAL

FRICTION

James P. Crutchfield, J. Doyne Farmer, Norman H. Packard, and Robert S. Shaw

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN DECEMBER, 1986 VOL. 254 NO. 12, 46-57.

chaos

Chaos

Chaos

10,000 red dots

Chaotic behavior

is characterized by divergence of nearby trajectories.

Lyapunov exponent is a measure of this divergence.

two slit interference one photon at a time grappling with wave particle duality

2 slit interference, one photon

Two-slit interference one photon at a time:grappling with wave/particle duality

Single photon interference: “a phenomenon which is impossible, absolutely impossible to explain in any classical way, and which has in it the heart of quantum mechanics. In reality, it contains the only mystery.” - Richard Feynman

http://www.blacklightpower.com/theory/DoubleSlit/

right and left circularly polarized light have different indexes of refractions

Faraday effect

Right and left circularly polarized light have different indexes of refractions

http://www.ifm.liu.se/~ulfek/viz/

verde constant depends on wavelength

Faraday effect

Verde constant depends on wavelength

Jain, Am. J. Phys. 67, August 1999, 714

slide17

The Zeeman effect

Zeeman effect

slide21

Optical pumping

F=2

5P1/2

F=1

795 nm

light

mF

2

F=2

1

0

5S1/2

-1

462 MHz

-2

F=1

Hyperfine

B increases

slide23
NMR

B-field

microwaves1
Microwaves

www.microwaves101.com

slide29

Muon Lifetime

Properties of the Leptons

www.hyperphysics.phy

slide31

Muon Lifetime

Muons stopped by plastic scintillator

plastic scintillator

photo-multiplier tube

http://alpha.sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp/grapes3

plasma the 4 th state of matter

Plasma

Plasma: “the 4th state of matter”

Most common state for the visible matter in the universe.

hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu

langmuir probe used to measure electron temperature

Plasma

Langmuir probe used to measure electron temperature

Cassini approaches Saturn

(Artist's impression: NASA)

Langmuir probe on Cassini/Huygens

(Photo: IRF Uppsala)