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Accelerators COSY and HESR. March 15, 2013 | Andreas Lehrach. Outline. I ntroduction C ooler S ynchrotron COSY Prototyping and Accelerator Physics Polarized Beams Preparation for Storage Ring EDM H igh- E nergy S torage R ing HESR Beam Dynamics Simulations Design Work

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Accelerators cosy and hesr

Accelerators COSY and HESR

March 15, 2013 | Andreas Lehrach



Cooler Synchrotron COSY

Prototyping and Accelerator Physics

Polarized Beams

Preparation for Storage Ring EDM

High-Energy Storage Ring HESR

Beam Dynamics Simulations

Design Work


Cooler synchrotron cosy
Cooler Synchrotron COSY



Ions: (pol. & unpol.) p and d

Momentum:300/600 to 3700 MeV/c for p/d, respectively

Circumference of the ring: 184m

Electron Cooling up to 550 MeV/c

Stochastic Cooling above 1.5 GeV/c




 Major Upgrades

Prototyping and accelerator physics
Prototyping and Accelerator Physics

Siberian Snake (2013)

Pellet Target

Residual Gas

Profile Monitor

RF Dipole


Barrier Bucket Cavity

Stochastic Cooling

2 MeV e-Cooler (2012/13)

RF Solenoid

Magnetized high energy electron cooling development steps
Magnetized High-Energy Electron Cooling: Development Steps

HESR: 4.5 MeV


from 0.1 MeV

to 2 MeV

Upgradable to 8 MeV

  • Technological challenge

  • Benchmarking of cooling forces

Installation at COSY started

Example beam cooling with wasa pellet target
Example: Beam Cooling with WASA Pellet Target

  • Injected beam

  • Beam heated by target

  • + stochastic cooling

  • d) + barrier bucket

Polarized beams at cosy
Polarized Beams at COSY


Polarization during acceleration













  • Length 0.6 m

  • Max. current ±3100 A

  • Max gradient 0.45 T/m

  • Rise time 10 μs

Intrinsic resonances  tune jumps

Imperfection resonances  vertical orbit excitation

P > 75% at 3.3 GeV/c

Physics at COSY using longitudinally polarized beams: Snake Concept

  • Should allow for flexible use at two locations

  • Fast ramping <30s

  • Integral long. field >4.7 T m

  • Cryogen-free system?





Siberian snake at cosy
Siberian Snake at COSY

Superconducting 4.7 Tm solenoid is ordered.

Overall length: 1 m

Ramping time 30 s

Spin dynamics and longitudinal polarized beams for experiments

Installation at COSY

in summer 2013

Polarization of a Stored Beam by Spin-Filtering

COSY Cycle / schematic

Experiment with COSY / schematic




COSY Cycle

  • Stacking injection at 45 MeV

  • Electron cooling on

  • Acceleration to 49.3 MeV

  • Start of spin-filter cycleat PAX: 16 000 s

  • PAX ABS off

  • ANKE cluster target on

  • Polarization measurement (2 500 s) at ANKE

  • Spin flips with RF Solenoid

  • New cycle: different direction of target polarization

Facility for antiproton and ion research
Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research








Linac: 70MeV protons, 70mA, ≤4Hz

SIS 18: 5·1012 protons/cycle

SIS 100: 4·1013 protons/cycle

29GeV protons

bunch compressed to 50nsec

Production target:2·108 antiprotons/cycle

3% momentum spread

CR: bunch rotation and stochastic cooling at 3.8GeV/c, 10s

RESR: accumulation at 3.8GeV/c


Hesr with panda and electron cooler
HESR with PANDA and Electron Cooler



Jülich is the leading lab of the HESR Consortium:

Germany (Jülich (90%), GSI, Mainz), Slovenia and Romania

HESR design driven by the requirements of PANDA:

Antiprotons with 1.5 GeV/c ≤ p ≤ 15 GeV/c

High luminosity: 2·1032 cm-2s-1

Thick targets: 4·1015 cm-2

High momentum resolution: Δp/p ≤ 4·10-5

Phase space cooling

Long beam life time: >30 min

Criteria for the Layout of the HESR

Beam dynamics simulations
Beam Dynamics Simulations

  • Beam injection and accumulation: stacking injection concept

    (Simulation codes by T. Katayama and H. Stockhorst)

  • Dynamic aperture calculations and closed-orbit correction: steering and multipole correction concept

    (MAD-X, SIMBAD based on ORBIT)

  • Beam losses at internal targets / luminosity estimations:

    particle losses (hadronic, single Coulomb, energy straggling, single intra-beam)

    (Analytic formulas)

  • Beam-cooling / beam-target interaction / intra-beam scattering: beam equilibria

    (BetaCool, MOCAC, PTARGET, Jülich stochastic cooling code)

  • Ring impedance: RF cavities, kicker etc.

    (SIMBAD based on ORBIT)

  • Trapped ions: discontinuity of vacuum chamber, clearing electrodes

    (Analytic codes)

Injection and accumulation
Injection and Accumulation

Beam accumulation in HESR required

for modularized FAIR start version

  • Barrier Bucket and stochastic cooling will be used to accumulate antiprotons in HESR

  • Proof of principle measurement

Future hesr upgrade options
Future HESR Upgrade Options

Polarized Proton-Antiprotons Collider

15 GeV/c – 3.5 GeV/c

Spin Filtering

Antiproton Polarizer (APR)

Asymmetric Collider

Polarized Electron-Nucleon Collider ENC

Accelerator Working Group:

Summary outlook
Summary / Outlook

Prototyping and Accelerator Physics at COSY

Detector tests for PANDA and CBM

Preparation for HESR:

High-Energy Electron Cooling and High-Bandwidth Stochastic Cooling

Internal Targets, RF Manipulation techniques

 COSY is essential to develop and establish these techniques for HESR

Polarized beams at COSY

Polarizing stored Antiprotons by spin-filtering

R&D work for storage ring EDM searches of charged particles

First direct EDM measurement, ideal EDM injector

 COSY is essential to perform R&D work for PAX and EDM

HESR project status

New HESR beam accumulation scheme due to modularized start version of FAIR

Design work of the HESR is finalized and the construction phase started

Main HESR components are ordered (dipoles, quadrupoles, ... )

 corresponds to roughly 30% of total project costs

Siberian snake
Siberian Snake

spin rotation

spin- and particle motion


  • Fullsnake:χ= 180° νsp = ½

  • Spin tune independent of beam energy

  • No spin resonances except snake resonances:

  • νsp = ½ = k ± l∙Qx± m∙Qy

    • Partial snake:χ< 180° νsp≠ k

    • Keeps the spin tune away from integer

  • No imperfection resonances

  • New 2 mv electron cooler at cosy
    New 2 MV Electron Cooler at COSY

    BINP Novosibirsk

    • Energy Range: 0.025 ... 2 MeV

    • High-Voltage Stability: < 10-4

    • Electron Current: 0.1 ... 3 A

    • Electron Beam Diameter: 10 ... 30 mm

    • Cooling section length: 2.694 m

    • Magnetic field (cooling section): 0.5 ... 2 kG

    Installation at COSY started

    Stochastic cooling system
    Stochastic Cooling System

    • Cooling Bandwidth (2 – 4) GHz

    • Pickup and Kicker Structures: Circular Slot Type Couplers*)

    • Aperture 90 mm

    • Length per cell 12.5 mm

    • 88 pickup cells

    • Total length: 1100 mm

    • Zero dispersion at pickup and kicker

    • Noise temperature pickup plus

      equivalent amplifier noise: 40 K

    • Momentum range 1.5 GeV/c to 15 GeV/c

    • Above 3.8 GeV/c: Filter Cooling

    • Below 3.8 GeV/c: TOF Cooling

    R. Stassen, FZJ

    Spin Manipulation in COSY

    • Jump Quadrupole

    • Air coil, length 0.6 m

    • Current ±3100 A, gradient 0.45 T/m

    • Rise time 10 μs, fall time 10 to 40 ms

    • RF Solenoid

    • Water-cooled copper coil in a copper box, length 0.6 m

    • Frequency range roughly 0.6 to 1.6 MHz

    • Integrated field ∫Brms dl ~ 1 T·mm

    • RF Dipole

    • 8-turn water-cooled copper coil in a ferrite box , length 0.6 m

    • Frequency range roughly 0.12 to 1.6 MHz

    • Integrated field ∫Brms dl ~ 0.1 T·mm

    • Siberian Snake (ordered)

    • Fast-Ramping Superconducting Solenoid, length 0.98m

    • Ramp time to maximum 30s

    • Integrated field ∫Brms dl = 0.47 Tm

    Cosy upgrade
    COSY Upgrade

    1. Improved closed-orbit control system for orbit correction in the micrometer range

     Increasing the stability of correction-dipole power supplies

     Increase number of correction dipoles and beam-position monitors (BPMs)

     Improve BPM accuracy, limited by electronic offset and amplifier linearity

     Systematic errors of the orbit measurement (e.g., temperature drift)

    2. Alignment of Magnets and BPMs

     More precise alignment of the quadrupole and sextupole magnets

     BPMs have to be aligned with respect to the magnetic axis of these magnets

    3. Beam oscillations

     Excited by vibrations of magnetic fields induced by the jitter of power supplies

     Coherent beam oscillation

    4. Longitudinal and transverse wake fields

     Ring impedances

    Hesr layout
    HESR Layout

    Main machine parameter

    Momentum range 1.5 to 15 GeV/c

    Circumference 574 m

    Magnetic bending power 50 Tm

    Dipole ramp 25 mT/s

    Acceleration rate 0.2 (GeV/c)/s

    Geometrical acceptances for βt = 2 m

    horizontal 4.9 mm mrad

    vertical 5.7 mm mrad

    Momentum acceptance ± 2.5×10-3


    Number 44

    Magnetic length 4.2 m

    Deflection angle 8.182°

    Max B-field 1.7 T

    Min B-field 0.17 T

    Aperture 100 mm


    Number 84

    Magnetic length 0.6 m

    Iron length (arc) 0.58 m

    Max gradient 20 T/m

    Aperture 100 mm

    Luminosity considerations full fair version
    Luminosity Considerations (Full FAIR version)

    Antiproton production rate: 2·107 /s

    Pellet target: nt=4·1015 cm-2

    Transverse beam emittance: 1mm·mrad

    Longitudinal ring acceptance: Δp/p = ±10-3

    Betatron amplitude at PANDA: 1m

    Circulating antiprotons: 1011

    Cycle averaged luminosity

    - Momentum 1.5 GeV/c: 0.3– 0.7 · 1032 cm-2s-1

    - Momentum: 15 GeV/c: 1.5– 1.6 · 1032cm-2s-1

    (Production rate: 1 – 2 · 107 /s)

    A. Lehrach et al., NIMA 561 (2006)

    O. Boine-Frankenheim et al., 560 (2006)

    F. Hinterberger, Jül-4206 (2006)

    Cooled beam equilibria
    Cooled Beam Equilibria

    Beam cooling, beam-target interactions, intra-beam scattering

    rms relative momentum spread p/p

    • Electron cooled beams

    • HR mode:7.9·10-6(1.5 GeV/c) to 2.7·10-5 (8.9 GeV/c), and 1·10-4 (15 GeV/c)

    • HL mode:<10-4

    • Stochastic cooled beams

    • HR mode:5.1·10-5 (3.8 GeV/c), 5.4·10-5 (8.9 GeV/c), and 3.9·10-5 (15 GeV/c)

    • HL mode: ~10-4

    • Transverse stochastic cooling can be adjusted independently

    D. Reistad et al:, Proc. of the Workshop on Beam Cooling and Related Topics COOL2007, MOA2C05, 44 (2007)

    O. Boine-Frankenheim et al., A 560 (2006) 245–255

    H. Stockhorst et al., Proc. of the European Accelerator Conference EPAC2008, THPP055, 3491 (2008).

    Expected pressure distribution and neutralization factor
    Expected Pressure Distribution and Neutralization Factor


    The mean time for residual gas ions in the antiproton beam Tc

    (clearing time) in relation to the time of ion production Tp:

    Average distance of clearing

    electrodes of 10 m,

    with a clearing voltage of 200 V

     Emittance Growth

     Incoherent Tune Shift

     Beam Instabilities

    Coherent beam instabilities
    Coherent Beam Instabilities

    Resonance frequencies:

    (8 − Qx) = 0.4005 and (8 − Qy) = 0.3784,

    (9 − Qx) = 1.4005 and (9 − Qy) = 1.3784

    Bounce frequencies of transverse H+2 ion oscillations represented as tune numbers qx,y

    horizontal vertical

    Beam momentum

    p = 15 GeV/c

    Estimates for beam instabilities

    F. Hinterberger, Ion Trapping in the High-Energy Storage Ring HESR, JÜL-Report 4343 (2011)

    Dynamic Aperture (Optimized)

    Dynamic Aperture

    16 mm mrad

    Orbit diffusion coefficient D

    Orbit diffusion coefficient (e.g. after 1000 and 2000 turns):