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Accelerators. Elementary Particle Physics Part 3 Accelerators Manfred Jeitler WS 2007/2008. electron microscope. Van-de-Graaf generator. Cockroft-Walton accelerator. Cockroft-Walton accelerator at CERN. Cyclotron. r.............orbit radius m...........particle mass

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  1. Accelerators

  2. Elementary Particle PhysicsPart 3AcceleratorsManfred JeitlerWS 2007/2008

  3. electron microscope

  4. Van-de-Graaf generator

  5. Cockroft-Walton accelerator

  6. Cockroft-Walton accelerator at CERN

  7. Cyclotron r.............orbit radius m...........particle mass v............particle velocity q............particle charge B............magnetic field the revolution frequency is independent of the particle‘s momentum:

  8. Synchrotron

  9. SPS Tunnel Super-Proton-Synchrotron (Geneva)

  10. first electron-electron collider: Novosibirsk / Russia VEP-1 130+130 MeV

  11. quadrupole dipole resonator reaction products interaction zone layout of a circularcollider

  12. LHC dipole

  13. layout of the LHC storage ring (built into the former LEP tunnel)

  14. the world‘s largest accelerators

  15. luminosity • (instant) luminosity is rate per cross section • usualunits: cm-2 s-1 • e.g., 1030 cm-2 s-1 corresponds, for a reaction cross section of 10-30 cm-2 ( = 1 μbarn), to a rate of 1 event per second • for a collider, the luminosity can be calculated as follows:

  16. integrated luminosity • number of events collected divided by the cross section • usual units: fb-1 (“inverse femtobarn”), ab-1 (“inverse attobarn”) • an integrated luminosity of 1 fb-1 means that for a process with a cross section of 1 fb, 1 event (on average) should have been collected • or 1000 events for a cross section of 1 nb, etc. • so, 1 inverse attobarn = 1000 inverse femtobarns : • 1 ab-1 = 1000 fb-1 • physicists are now looking for very rare events, so it is vital to reach not only high energies (so that heavy particles can be produced) but also high luminosities • handling the resulting data rates is a challenge also for the detectors, trigger systems, and readout electronics

  17. today’s most important collider experiments

  18. accelerator centers worldwide

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