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IS/IT Roles in Organization and Their Relationship to Business Strategy. Session Objectives. Understand the strategic context of IS/IT in organization Understand the business strategy formulation Understand the impact of business strategy to IS/IT strategy development.

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IS/IT Roles in Organization and Their Relationship to Business Strategy

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session objectives
Session Objectives
  • Understand the strategic context of IS/IT in organization
  • Understand the business strategy formulation
  • Understand the impact of business strategy to IS/IT strategy development.
  • Widening horizon on how IS/IT plays its role in an organization.
  • Strategic Context of IS/IT in Organization
  • Evolution of IS in Organization
  • Success Factors of Strategic Information Systems
  • The Relationship of IS/IT Strategy and Business Strategy
  • IS/IT Strategy
  • Evolution of Business Planning
  • Framework of Business Planning
  • Competitive Forces in Industry
  • Competitive Strategy and Its Implication to IS/IT Strategy
  • SPIS in Indonesia: Local point of view
strategic context of is in organization
Strategic Context of IS in Organization
  • More products available in digital form – Hence e-delivery through an IS (give some examples e-products?)
  • More commerce takes place electronically (e-commerce-create new opportunities, online transaction)
  • More activities getting more complex, need various of data and information (data mining, enterprise information systems - ERP)
  • Interrelatedness of Business activities within and between companies (improve efficiency and productivity)
  • Technology advancement that can processes data in a large volume in a relatively short time (SPMB data).

The Evolution of Information Systems

  • Year 1960 – Data processing (DP) era
  • Year 1970 – Management IS (MIS) era
  • Year 1980 – Strategic IS (SIS-EIS) era
  • Year 1990 – E-business & e-commerce era
  • Year 2000 – Enterprise Resource Planning era
  • Each era has different characteristics of IS.
characteristic of dp era
Characteristic of DP Era
  • Centralized processing
  • Using multi-purpose Mainframe computer
  • Batch processing
  • Data storage: magnetic disk, tape
  • Programming language: Cobol, Basic, etc.
  • Automating information-based processes

Characterize the nature of business at DP era?

characteristics of mis era
Characteristics of MIS Era
  • Introducing minicomputer
  • Using variety business applications
  • Still centralized
  • Used a hierarchical application portfolio model based on a stratification of management activity:
    • Strategic planning
    • Management control
    • Operational control
  • Increase management effectiveness by satisfying their information requirements for decision making – to help manager

Characterize the nature of business at MIS era?

characteristics of sis era
Characteristics of SIS Era
  • Introducing Personal Computer (PC)
  • Introducing office automation
  • Introducing new capabilities: flexible access and decision support
  • Improving competitiveness by changing the nature or conduct of business (i.e. IS/IT investments can be a source of competitive advantage)

Characterize the nature of business at SIS era?





Sales forecasting operating plans capacity

planning, profit/earnings forecasts,

business mix analysis, manpower

planning, financial modeling




Sales analysis budgetary control, management

accounting, inventory management, quality analysis,

expense reporting, market research/statistics, WIP

control, requirements planning, supplier analysis, etc.




Order entry, processing, tracking shipping documents, vehicle

scheduling/loading, invoicing, sales and purchase ledgers, cost

accounting, stock control, shop-floor scheduling, bill of materials,

purchase orders, receiving, employee records, payroll, word





Early Views and Models of IS/IT in Organizations (Anthony, 65)

types of sis
Types of SIS
  • Those that link the organization to its customers or suppliers to share information
  • Those that effectively integrate the use of information in the organization value chain
  • Those that enable the organization to develop new or enhanced products or services based on information
  • Those that provide managers with better information for strategy development
  • Example: Tradenet, SABRE (American Airlines), Valuelink (Baxter Healthcare).
success factors of sis
Success Factors of SIS
  • External in nature instead of internal focus: i.e image building
  • Adding value instead of cost reduction: i.e e-ticket
  • Sharing the benefits internally and externally: i.e ATM
  • Understanding customers and their needs: i.e customized product
  • Business instead of technology driven innovation: i.e covering a wider customers
  • Incremental instead of total development: i.e web-based application
  • Using information gained to develop business: i.e learning organization

Exercise your critical thinking by giving more examples to those success factors !!


The Relationship Between the Business, SIS, MIS, and DP

Business Strategic


Executive Management

IS/IT Strategic


Impact Analysis

User Management



User Operations

Information Analysis

Project and

Computer Management

Systems Design

so what s an is it strategy
So… What’s an IS/IT Strategy?
  • IS/IT strategy is composed of two parts
    • IS component
    • IT component
  • IS strategy defines the organization’s requirement for information systems to support the overall strategy of the business
  • The IT strategy is outlining the vision of how the organization’s demand for information and systems will be supported by IT
  • It addresses the provision of ICT capabilities and resources and services such as IT operations, systems development and user support

Start thinking about the example of IS/IT Strategy!!


The Context of IS/IT Strategy (Sullivan, 1985)

Internal organization pressures:

demanding further distribution of IS/IT control



degree of


zation of

IS/IT control

in the




External competitive

pressures: increasing

the criticality of

IS/IT to the business






Infusion-degree of dependence of

IS/IT of the business

evolution of business planning welleck dkk 1980
Evolution of Business Planning (Welleck, dkk.,1980)

Effectiveness of

strategic decision


Well defined strategic


Strategically focused


Widespread strategic

thinking capability

Reinforcing management


Supportive value system

and climate

Multi-year budgets

Gap analysis

Static allocation of


Situation analysis and

competitive assessments

Evaluation of strategic


Dynamic allocation of


Annual budgets

Functional focus

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4

Financial Forecast-based Externally Strategic

planning planning oriented management

(meet budget) (predict the (think (create the

future) strategically) future)

framework for business planning
Framework for Business Planning

External Environments

Economic Political Ecological

Technological Social Legal




Objectives Identify current Identify future Threats and

strategies strategies opportunities

Evaluate Analyze Evaluate

feedback internal strategies


Monitor Implement Select

Strategies Strategies Strategies
















Financial Ins.



input to business planning
Input to Business Planning
  • External environments - sources of important signals to organizations
  • Pressure groups - demand recognition and rapid management response
  • Stakeholders - demand fair share of created wealth
  • Business planning is usually carried out for each strategic business unit
    • A unit that sells a distinct set of products or services, serve a specific set of customers, and competes with a well-defined set of competitors
definition of business strategy
Definition of Business Strategy
  • Definition of business strategy:
    • An integrated set of actions aimed at increasing the long-term well-being and strength of the organization relative to its competitors
process of business planning
Process of Business Planning









Strategic planning of

options selected

  • Define mission and objectives
  • Assess situation and options
  • Select options

Implement strategies

Strategic thinking and opportunistic

decision making

technique to develop business strategy competitive forces in industry porter 1980
Technique to Develop Business Strategy: Competitive Forces in Industry (Porter, 1980)

Threat of new


Rivalry among




power of



power of


Threat of



factors affecting the impact of competitive forces
Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces
  • New entrants
    • Capital requirements
    • Patents and specialists skill required
    • Distribution channels available
    • Achieved/required economies of scale and resultant cost advantages
    • Number and size of existing rivals and intensity of competition
    • Differentiation and brand establishment/loyalty
    • Access to raw materials/critical resources etc.

Business strategy: “how to discourage new entrants to come

into the business”

strategic choices factors affecting the impact of competitive forces
Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces
  • Substitute products/services
    • Customer awareness of needs and means of satisfaction
    • Customer sensitivity to value for money and ability to compare
    • Existing loyalty of customer—impact of “industry” promotion
    • Ability to differentiate products etc.

Business strategy: “how to create a loyal customers?”

strategic choices factors affecting the impact of competitive forces1
Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces
  • Competitive rivalry will be intensified by:
    • Market growth slow (or in decline)
    • Small number of similar sized competitors dominate
    • High fixed costs and/or high exit barriers for all rivals
    • Overcapacity and/or capacity increments are large units
    • Commodity-like, undifferentiated products.

Business strategy: “how to differentiate your products?”

strategic choices factors affecting the impact of competitive forces2
Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces
  • Buyers’ power will be increased by:
    • Concentrated/few buyers making high volume and/or high value of purchases
    • Low switching costs across suppliers
    • Price sensitive and many alternative sources of supply
    • Weak brand identities, products not differentiated
    • Buyers capable of backward integration due to low entry cost.

Business strategy: “how to make the buyers depend on your business”

strategic choices factors affecting the impact of competitive forces3
Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces
  • Suppliers’ power will be increased by:
    • Few suppliers—high switching costs for rivals and suppliers deal with many small customers
    • Potential substitute supplier/resources not easily available
    • Supplied goods make up large part of firm’s costs
    • Suppliers capable of forward integration or bypass to customers

Business strategy: “how to make the suppliers depend on your business”

generic competitive strategy
Generic Competitive Strategy







implications of competitive business strategy to is it strategy
Implications of Competitive Business Strategy to IS/IT Strategy
  • How can IS/IT affect the nature and value of the product or service and its life cycle?
    • Generate a new product or a new line of business
    • Enable products to be designed or delivered more quickly
    • Be used to add additional features or services to increase the product’s value


  • How can IS/IT affect the demand for products and services, segments more effectively, extend them geographically, or provide new distribution channels to reach the market?
    • Enable to reach more appropriate customers
    • Enable to match our different products/services to customer appropriately
    • Enable the product/service to be distributed in new ways to the customers
    • Enable to get closer to the market-place rather than deal through intermediaries


  • How can IS/IT affect the cost base of the key processes in the industry or change the balance in the trade-off between flexibility and standardization?
    • Enable the product/service to be produced more economically
    • Enable production and associated logistics to be integrated to produce greater flexibility of resource use
    • Enable a higher quality of product or service to be offered at a much lower cost than traditionally
why is is t planning important
Why is IS/T Planning Important?
  • IT Strategy is the process of defining the strategic use of technology in an organization.
  • The IS/T Planning process ensures efficient and effective investment of IT to support the business
  • IT is More Critical to Corporate Success
      • The use of IT is increasingly pervasive
      • Enterprises are discovering that IT can influence the relative performance of most departments
indonesia and is planning
Indonesia and IS Planning
  • There is a tendency not to pay attention for ‘planning’
  • The attitude extends to IS/T planning
  • Part of the problem is that there is no ‘tangible’ or ‘less realizable’ outcome resulting from IS/T planning
  • We see more Indonesian organizations conduct IT projects – not preceded by formal IS/T Planning
results of lack of is t planning
Results of Lack of IS/T Planning
  • Failed of IS/T projects
  • We see IT projects which lacks direction, weak in scope, have little of no identification of Critical Success Factors.
  • Inefficient use of investment in IT
  • Bad name for IT professionals and due to failed IT implementations
is it planning for the indonesian
IS/IT Planning for the Indonesian
  • Need processes which are more facilitator-driven, higher involvement of consultants who has psychological and cultural sensitivity
  • Need processes which are a combination between verbal (direct) and in-direct interactions – to ensure that ideas and opinions are fully expressed
is t planning in indonesian organizations realities
IS/T Planning in Indonesian Organizations: Realities
  • Justification for auditing purposes
  • Idea often comes bottom up: hence the challenges
  • Do not believe in documentation: hence the approach is often less formal
  • Difficult to get buy-in from management who would rather see IT implementation projects
  • Who’s project is this: an IT department project?
trends in is t planning
Trends in IS/T Planning
  • We will see more ‘formal’ IS/T Planning activities with increase of IS/T dominance as an integral part of business
  • IS/T Planning will need to be done faster, with the faster trend of technology development
  • Clear definition between business plan, IS/T planning and IT implementation will become more and more blurred as technology will continue to drive businesses stronger

Exercise Your Thought

  • Explain the evolution roles of IT/IS in an organization?
  • What are Business and IS/IT strategies?
  • Explain the relationship of Business, IS/IT strategies?
  • How external forces influence business strategy and IS/IT strategies
  • What are the challenges of IS/IT Plan in Indonesia?