Monomers, polymers, and macromolecules. There are 4 categories of macromolecules: Carbohydrates Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids. Carbon is the central element. All biomolecules contain a Carbon chain or ring Carbon has 4 outer shell electrons (valence = 4)
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There are 4 categories of macromolecules:
and Nucleic acids
The 4 types of biomolecules oftenconsist of large carbon chains
OH, NH2, PO4 are called ‘functional groups’!
Enantiomers are mirror images of each other
One such enantiomer contains C bound to 4 different molecules and is called a chiral molecule
Chiral molecules rotate polarized light to the right (D form) or to the left (L form) molecules
Examples: amino acids (L form)
sugars (D form)
Examples of sugar monomers*
*Remember how C’s are counted within the ring structures (starting from the right side and counting clockwise)
Glycogen to glucose in animals
Starch structure vs Glycogen structure
Polysaccharides: Cellulose structure
The 20 Amino Acids
All differ with respect to their R group
The chain (polymer) of amino acids forms a variety of loops, coils, and folded sheets from an assortment of bonds and attractions between amino acids within the chain(s)
Motifs and Domains: Important features of 2° and 4° structure
One polymer of nucleotides on one “backbone” of nucleic acid
The DNA “double helix”
What specific bonds form between glycerol and each fatty acid chain?
Would you think this to be an hydrolysis or a dehydration synthesis rxn?
The difference resides in the number of H’s attached to C’s in the fatty acid chains; the amount of “saturation” on the C’s
The 3 C’s of glycerol are bound to:
2 fatty acid chains
Hydrophilic (polar) “heads” of P-lipid oriented to the exterior; hydrophobic (non-polar) “tails” oriented to the interior