why warehouse n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Why Warehouse? PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Why Warehouse?

Why Warehouse?

302 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Why Warehouse?

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Why Warehouse? It needs • Space • Labor • Equipment • Storage material • Software and support • other so many costs Why cannot we ship the goods directly from manufacturing plants to customers? Significance of a warehouse in the company’s supply chain:

  2. Why Warehouse? To better match supply with customer demand: • Demand-Supply variations • Seasonality changes (Toys at Christmas) • Unreliable transportation (China to US) • Price break due to bulk purchase • Buffer against excess demand (Epidemic) • Consolidate Products: • Reduce transportation costs (Cater to thousands of stores and customers) • Customizations Storage for frozen goods at SL Room design at RH Kitting at Hanes Brands Computer assembly at Dell • Pricing and Labeling

  3. Why Warehouse?

  4. Why Warehouse?

  5. Types of Warehouses • Supply Driven – Component /sub-assembly/ Tools • Demand Driven – Distribution Centers • Retail Distribution Center: Supplies product to retail stores • Service Parts Distribution Center: Hold spare parts for extensive capital equipment • Catalog fulfillment or e-commerce distribution: Orders received by individuals over phone, internet. • 3PL warehouse: Third Party logistics to service multiple customers from one location • Perishable/Hazardous Materials: Perishable or inflammable or live stocks goods that need special attention

  6. Material Flow In context of the Supply Chain: A sequence of processes (chain) through which the product moves (gets supplied) from its origin to the customer. A warehouse is a storage tank along the pipeline. • Keep the product moving; avoid starts and stops which means extra handling and space requirements • Avoid layouts that impede smooth flow • Identify and resolve bottlenecks to flow

  7. Units of Handling Although, we have used the fluid model for analogy, the product is not indivisible in reality. It flows more like sand, gravel, rocks and boulders. • Stock Keeping Unit (SKU): It is the smallest physical unit of a product that is tracked by an organization • It may be a box of paper clips or a small paper clip itself.

  8. Units of Handling Upstream in the supply chain, product generally flows in larger units such as pallets and is successively broken down into smaller units as it moves downstream.

  9. Units of Handling • Factory to Regional DC: Pallet Loads • Regional DC to Local DC: Case Loads • Local DC to Stores: Inner Packs • Local DC to Consumers: Pieces • Additional Terminologies: • License Plate Number (LPN): Identify the pallet • Tote: A bucket like object used to pick orders • CHEP: A third Party/ outside pallet that does not belong to DC • Manifest/Parcel: A small package usually shipped out of UPS/FedEx (Samples)

  10. Units of Handling SKU Item Can Item Suffix Zero Color Black/Brown/Blue/Grey/White Color Suffix Light/Dark Dimension Quality Size 350

  11. Units of Handling SKU Item Bottle Item Suffix Zero Color Blue/Grey/Black Color Suffix Light/Dark Dimension Quality Size 500

  12. Units of Handling UOM Pack of 5: Carton with inner pack

  13. Units of Handling Carton with loose quantity Pallet

  14. Units of Handling Pallets stacked in the warehouse

  15. Warehouse Layout Area/Zone/Aisle/Bay/Level/Position/Sequence

  16. Locations PKMS has mainly 3 types of locations: • Reserve Locations • Case Pick Locations • Active Locations Other location types • Pick Up and Drop Off (P&D) • Quality and Rework (QA/QH) • Shipping Lane (SHL) • Very Narrow Aisle (VNA) • Pallet Storage (Single Deep/ Double Deep) • Loose or Active storage • Carousels (CAR) • Floor (FLR) • Racks • Docks/Doors (DOCK/DOOR)

  17. Locations Dedicated locations: Each Storage location is reserved for an assigned product and only that product may be stored there. • Pros: Store popular products in convenient locations, pickers can learn and pick efficiently • Cons: It does not use the space efficiently. If the demand for that SKU drops, the locations remain empty for longer time or demand exceeds, we cannot assign it to a new location. Shared (Mixed SKU) locations: Each storage location can be used to store multiple products • Pros: If a location becomes empty, it is available for reassignment to another product. • Cons: Workers cannot learn locations. They need rely on WMS to direct to the right location. There is need for a disciplined approach as there might be a tendency to pick from nearest location. A decision: • Pick from a least filled location so as to empty it sooner • Pick from a nearest location so as to save time and labor

  18. Equipment • Warehouses will operate varied equipment and their selection is determined from the products being handled and stored, coupled with an objective operational methodology. • There are mainly 2 types of equipment, one that move the products like MHE, Fork-lift trucks and one that is used for the storage of products like racks and shelves. • These both types exists side by side and are compatible. Fork-Lift Trucks: This is the “work horse” of most warehouses.

  19. A Fork Lift Truck

  20. A Fork Lift Truck

  21. RF Gun

  22. Warehouse Operations • A warehouse typically reorganizes and repackages the product. • Product typically arrives packaged at a larger scale and leaves packaged on a smaller scale • An important function of the warehouse is to break down large chunks of product and redistribute it in smaller quantities. For example, SKU arrives from vendor in pallets and shipped out as eaches. • Smaller the handling unit, larger is the cost due to labor. • In short they receive bulk shipments, stage them for quick retrieval, and then in response to customer requests retrieve and sort SKU’s and ship them out to customers. ------------------------------- • A general rule is that the product should as much, flow continuously through this sequence of process. • Each time it is put down means that it must be picked up again sometime later, which is double-handling. When such double-handling is summed over all the tens-of-thousands of SKU’s and hundreds-of-thousands of pieces and/or cases in a warehouse, the cost can be considerable. • Another rule is that product should be scanned at all key decision points to give “total visibility of assets”, which enables quick and accurate response to customer demand.

  23. Warehouse Operations The re-organization of the product takes place through the following physical processes: Inbound Process • Receiving • Put-Away Outbound Process • Order Picking • Checking, Packing, Shipping

  24. Warehouse Operations (INBOUND) Receiving: (10% of work load – Indicator of volume of tickets) • Advance Notification of Goods (ASN) to allow DC to schedule receipt of goods • Unloading of product and staged for put-away • Inspection and quality audits • Mixed pallets sorted out into single SKU pallets Put-Away: (15% of work load) • Determination of appropriate storage location. This is important as this decides how quickly and at what cost you later retrieve it for a customer • Scanning of location when item is put-away • This is important as product needs to be moved to a considerable distance to its storage location

  25. Warehouse Operations (OUTBOUND) Order Waving and Picking: (55% of work load) On receipt of a customer order the warehouse must perform checks such as verifying that inventory is available to ship. Then the warehouse must produce pick lists to guide the order-picking. Finally, it must produce any necessary shipping documentation and schedule the order-picking and shipping. Waving • The outbound processes of the warehouse are initiated by receipt of a customer order, which may be thought of as a shopping list. Each entry on the list is referred to as an order-line and typically consists of the item and quantity requested. The warehouse management system (WMS) then checks the order against available inventory and identifies any shortages. In addition, the WMS may re-organize the list to match the layout and operations of the warehouse for greater efficiency. For example, if a customer has ordered 15 of a particular item, the warehouse management system (WMS) may check to see how the item is packaged. If 12 of the item comprise a carton, the WMS may convert the order-line for 15 eaches to two pick-lines, one for 1 carton and the other for 3 eaches. In many warehouses, each-picking and carton-picking are separate processes, and the pick-lines are diverted appropriately. • The WMS organizes pick-lines into pick-lists to achieve still more efficiencies, so that an order-picker may be able to concentrate on one area of the warehouse and so reduce travel. In addition, the WMS may sequence the pick-lines so that the locations to be visited appear in the sequence in which they will normally be encountered as the picker moves through the warehouse.

  26. Warehouse Operations (OUTBOUND) Order Waving and Picking: (55% of work load) Picking RF: • The pick-list may be a physical sheet of paper, or merely a sequence of requests communicated by a stream of printed shipping labels, or by light, RF, or voice transmission. Picking Types: • The most labor-intensive order-picking is the picking of less-than-carton quantities, referred to typically as broken-case or split-case picking. Broken-case picking is labor intensive because it requires handling the smallest units of measure in the warehouse and this is generally resistant to automation because of the size and variety of SKU’s to be handled. • In contrast, carton-picking (picking full cartons) can sometimes be automated because of the relative uniformity of cartons, which are almost always rectangular and packed to resist damage.

  27. Warehouse Operations (OUTBOUND) Order Waving and Picking: (55% of work load) Picking Picking Strategies: Batch Order (Generate pick-lists) SKU Wise: Pros • Pick density can be increased, at least locally, by storing the most popular SKU’s together. Then order-pickers can make more picks in a small area, which means less walking. Cons • Worker retrieves many orders in one trip. However, this requires that the items be sorted into orders either while picking or else downstream. While Picking - they must carry a container for each order and they must sort the items as they pick, which is time-consuming and can lead to errors • Down Stream - If the items are sorted downstream, space and labor must be devoted to this additional process. In both cases even more work and space may be required if, in addition, the orders themselves must be sorted to arrive at the trailer in reverse sequence of delivery.

  28. Warehouse Operations (OUTBOUND) Order Waving and Picking: (55% of work load) Picking Picking Strategies: Batch Order (Generate pick lists) Line Wise: Pros • These orders are easy to manage since there is no need to sort while picking and they can frequently be picked directly into a shipping container. Cons • A general decision to be made is whether a typical order should be picked in serial (by a single worker at a time) or in parallel (by multiple workers at a time). The general trade-off is that picking serially can take longer to complete an order but avoids the complications of coordinating multiple pickers and consolidating their work.

  29. Warehouse Operations (OUTBOUND) Order Waving and Picking: (55% of work load) Picking Replenishment: • To sustain order-picking product must also be replenished. Restockers move SKU’s in larger units of measure (cartons, pallets) and so a few restockers can keep many pickers supplied. A rule of thumb is one restocker to every five pickers; but this will depend on the particular patterns of flow. • A restock is more expensive than a pick because the restocker must generally retrieve product from bulk storage and then prepare each pallet or case for picking. For example, he may remove shrink-wrap from a pallet so individual cases can be retrieved; or he may cut individual cases open so individual pieces can be retrieved.

  30. Warehouse Operations (OUTBOUND) Packing: (5% of work load) • Packing can be labor-intensive because each piece of a customer order must be handled; but there is little walking. And because each piece will be handled, this is a convenient time to check that the customer order is complete and accurate. • One complication of packing is that customers generally prefer to receive all the parts of their order in as few containers as possible because this reduces shipping and handling charges. This means that care must be taken to try to get all the parts of an order to arrive at packing together. Otherwise partial shipments must be staged, waiting completion before packing, or else partial orders must be packaged and sent. • Packed product may be scanned to register the availability of a customer order for shipping. This also begins the tracking of the individual containers that are about to leave the warehouse and enter the system of a shipper.

  31. Warehouse Operations (OUTBOUND) Shipping: (15% of work load) • Shipping generally handles larger units than picking, because packing has consolidated the items into fewer containers (cases, pallets). Consequently, there is still less labor here. There may be some walking if product is staged before being loaded into freight carriers. • Product is likely to be staged if it must be loaded in reverse order of delivery or if shipping long distances, when one must work hard to completely fill each trailer. Staging freight creates more work because staged freight must be double-handled. • The trailer is likely to be scanned here to register its departure from the warehouse. • In addition, an inventory update / ASN (Advanced Shipment Information) may be sent to the customer

  32. Warehouse Operations (VAP) VAP - Value added processing • Such work may be pushed on warehouses by manufacturers upstream who want to postpone product differentiation. By postponing product differentiation, upstream distributors, in effect, see more aggregate demand for their (undifferentiated) product. For example, a manufacturer can concentrate on laptop computers rather than on multiple smaller markets, such as laptop computers configured for an English-speaking market and running Windows 2000, those for a German-speaking market and running Linux, and so on. • At the same time value-added processing is pushed back onto the warehouse from retail stores, where it is just too expensive to do. Both land and labor are typically more expensive at the retail outlet and it is preferable to have staff there concentrate on dealing with the customer. Typical value-added processing includes the following: • Ticketing or Labeling (For example, New York state requires all items in a pharmacy to be price-labeled and many distributors do this while picking the items in the warehouse.) • Monogramming or Alterations (For example, these services are offered by Lands End, a catalog and e-mail merchant of clothing) • Repackaging • Kitting(repackaging items to form a new item) • Final assembly, OEM labeling (For example, many manufacturers of computer equipment complete assembly and packaging in the warehouse, as the product is being packaged and shipped.)

  33. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) MQ Servers • Controls: • Start the server • Shutdown the server • Display unprocessed • Display errors • Work with job/logs

  34. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Server Setup

  35. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Server Setup

  36. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Server Setup

  37. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Server Setup

  38. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Work with logs (To look out for errors of already finished jobs):

  39. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Host Apply Servers • Controls: • Start the server • Shutdown the server • Display unprocessed • Display errors • 9. Work with job

  40. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Display Errors:

  41. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Display Errors:

  42. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Display Errors:

  43. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Reapply ASN:

  44. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Server Setup:

  45. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Server Setup:

  46. WM Server Monitor (Hands On) Server Setup:

  47. WM Interface Details (INBOUND) Item/Style Master • MQ Server: MQ2 • Flat File: I5INPT00 • Host Apply Server: I03 • Program Called: IF03U0CL -> IF03U0RP (Main) IF03U1RP (Host Specific Validations) IF03C0RP (Custom Validations) • PKMS Master File: STSTYL00/ CQSTYL00

  48. WM Interface Details (INBOUND) ASN (Advance Shipment Notification) • MQ Server: MQ7 • Flat File: I8INPT00 (ASN/Shipment Header) • I9INPT00 (ASN/Shipment Detail) • IBINPT00 (Case Details) • Host Apply Server: I09 • Program Called: IF09U0CL -> IF09U0RP IF09U1RP (Host Specific Validations) IF09C0RP (Custom Validations) • PKMS Master File: AHASNF00 (ASN/Shipment Header) ADASNF00 (ASN/Shipment Detail) IDCASE00 (Case Details)

  49. WM Interface Details (INBOUND) Pick-Tickets • MQ Server: MQ6 • Flat File: I5INPT00 • Host Apply Server: I01 • Program Called: IF01U0CL -> IF01U0RP • PKMS Master File: PHPICK00 (Pick-ticket Header) PDPICK00 (Pick-ticket Detail)

  50. WM Interface Details (INBOUND) Item Cross Reference • MQ Server: MQ8 • Flat File: IRINPT00 • Host Apply Server: I26 • Program Called: IP38U0CL -> IP38U0RP • PKMS Master File: XRXREF00 (Cross Reference File for Barcode – Vendor to SKU Barcode Mapping)