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Towards Sociable Robots. Cynthia Breazeal MIT Media Lab Robotic Presence Group. Outline. Brief survey of human-robot interaction research domains Design issues as applied towards sociable robots Ingredients/Grand challenges of sociable robots. Humans in Hazardous environments.

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towards sociable robots

Towards Sociable Robots

Cynthia Breazeal

MIT Media Lab

Robotic Presence Group

outline
Outline
  • Brief survey of human-robot interaction research domains
  • Design issues as applied towards sociable robots
  • Ingredients/Grand challenges of sociable robots
humans in hazardous environments
Humans in Hazardous environments
  • Robots as critical systems
    • Pre-curser missions to characterize planet
    • Set up infrastructure for astronauts
    • Assistance on Mars (carry tools, etc.)
    • Life support on Mars
  • Morphology
    • Vehicular/mobile/carry payload
    • Humanoid/space shuttle/use astronaut tools
  • Balance of control
    • Tele-operation, VR
    • Supervised from within
    • Supervised face-to-face

JPL

JSC

human supervised teams
Human supervised teams
  • Single human commanding many robots
  • Balance of control
    • Heterogeneous vs homogenous teams
    • Hierarchical? Autocratic? Democratic?
    • Load balancing and task allocation
    • Cooperative & distributed conrol (USC)
    • Scaling to (very) large numbers
  • Interface issues
    • Usability of software for tactical scenarios (GaTech)
    • Communication/interaction
  • DARPA—Mixed initiative control of autonoma teams

UCB

robotic augmentation of humans
Robotic-augmentation of humans
  • Robot as an “extension” of your body
    • Enhance ability of a surgeon
    • Robotic prosthetic, wheelchair
    • Robotic exoskeleton
  • Interface issues
    • Brain-machine interface (CalTech, Duke)
    • Bio-mimetic robots
  • DARPA—Bio:Info:Micro

Intuitive Surgical

iBOT

MIT

robots in the human environment
Robots in the human environment
  • Robots in the home, office, etc…
  • Domestic assistants, healthcare,“smart” appliances, entertainment, education…
  • Robots that are a part of your everyday life
    • Autonomy in human social environment
    • On the job learning
    • Untrained users of different gender, age, culture, etc.
    • Long-term relationship

NEC

Sony

human robot relationships
Human-Robot Relationships
  • Smart tool (surgical robots)
  • Complete independence (vacuum cleaner robot)
  • Extension of you (robotic prosthetic)
  • Commander/troops
  • Pet owner/pet
  • Master/servant
  • Peer/colleague
a question of interface hci
A Question of Interface (HCI)
  • Intuitive, natural interface for untrained users (Reeves&Nass)
    • Humans are experts in social interaction
    • Humans automatically and unconsciously respond socially and naturally to technology.
    • If technology adheres to human social expectations, people find interaction enjoyable and feel empowered and competent
    • Holds for specialists and lay people
  • How does age, gender, culture, etc. impact this?
  • How to measure, evaluate?
what is a sociable robot
What is a sociable robot?
  • To build robots that have a “living” presence, that people can interact with, communicate with, understand, and teach in human terms.
    • Robots that support human social intelligence
    • Robots that are socially intelligent themselves
    • Self-motivated, pro-active creature, not appliance
  • Process of synthesis and iteration to come to a deeper scientific understanding of human sociability
design issues for sociable robots morphology
Design issues for sociable robots:Morphology
  • Match morphology to the task and environment
  • Humanoid form
    • Send and receive human social cues in similar modalities
      • Gaze direction
      • Gesture
      • Vocalizations/speech
      • Facial expressions
    • Human engineered environment tailored to human morphology

Sony

Sony

CMU

NEC

design issues for sociable robots appearance
Design issues for sociable robots:Appearance
  • Establish suitable social expectations
    • Organic human faces difficult to achieve
    • Balance familiarity vs “too plug-compatible”
    • Biases interaction (dog-like, human-like, etc)
    • Implied abilities (physical, cognitive, etc.)
  • Mechanical “cartoon”
    • Anthropomorphic but creaturish
    • Appeal and to portray youth

KSRP

Waseda

SUT

MIT

design issues for sociable robots personality
Design issues for sociable robots:Personality
  • Should the robot have a designed personality?
  • Compatible with person’s personality, culture…(HCI)
  • Encourages creature rather than tool-like interactions
  • Encourage infant-caregiver interactions
    • Portrays youth and curiosity
    • Simplest human-style interaction between human and robot
    • Study in social development---humans must engage robot socially
    • Benefits robot’s perceptual/behavioral limitations
    • Benefits learning scenarios
design issues for sociable robots psychological etc modeling
Science can guide design of perceptual, motivational (“drives” & “emotions”), cognitive, behavioral, and motor systems.

Match to human counterparts

Find same things salient

Perceive behaviorally relevant cues

Recognizable behavior, expressions

Predictable, understandable behavior, etc.

Creature-like autonomy, robustness, flexibility, adaptability

Understand natural systems (animals, people)

Design Issues for Sociable RobotsPsychological, etc. modeling
wolfe s model vgs2 0
Wolfe’s model, VGS2.0

Frame Grabber

skin tone

color

motion

habituation

  • Provides locus of attention to organize behavior
  • Human and robot both find stimuli interesting
  • Gaze direction is feedback cue to human

w

w

w

w

attention

inhibit

reset

Top down,

task-driven

influences

Eye Motor

Control

examples
Matched to human

Readable

Understandable

Examples

stimulus category

stimulus

presentations

average time (s)

commonly used cues

commonly read cues

color and movement

yellow dinosaur

8

8.5

motion across centerline,

shaking,

bringing object close

change in visual behavior,

face reaction,

body posture

multi-colored block

8

6.5

green cylinder

8

6.0

movement only

black&white cow

8

5.0

skin toned and movement

pink cup

8

6.5

hand

8

5.0

face

8

3.0

Overall

56

5.8

design issues for sociable robots managing interaction complexity
Design issues for sociable robots:Managing Interaction Complexity
  • Robots have limited perceptual, cognitive, behavioral abilities compared to people
  • Imbalance in social sophistication between human and robot
  • Tightly coupled and contingent interactions
  • Mutually regulated
  • Regulate interaction between robot and human
    • Role of “emotions” and “drives” with expressive feedback
    • Modulate intensity of interaction
    • Turn-taking with para-linguistic envelope displays
    • Entrainment
entrainment and regulation

time stamp (min:sec)

seconds between disturbances

subject 1

start @ 15:20

15:20 – 15:33

13

15:37 – 15:54

21

15:56 – 16:15

19

16:20 – 17:25

70

end @ 18:07

17:30 – 18:07

37+

subject 2

start @ 6:43

6:43 – 6:50

7

6:54 – 7:15

21

7:18 – 8:02

44

end @ 8:43

8:06 – 8:43

37+

subject 3

start @ 4:52

4:52 – 4:58

10

5:08 – 5:23

15

5:30 – 5:54

24

6:00 – 6:53

53

6:58 – 7:16

18

7:18 – 8:16

58

8:25 – 9:10

45

end @ 10:40

9:20 – 10:40

80+

Entrainment and Regulation
  • Naive subjects
    • Age from 25 to 28
    • All young professionals.
    • No prior experience with Kismet
    • Video recorded
  • Turn-taking performance
    • 82% “clean” turn transitions
    • 11% interruptions
    • 7% delays followed by prompting
  • Evidence for entrainment
    • Use shorter phrases
    • Wait longer for response
    • Wait for multiple phrases
need a multi disciplinary community
Need a multi-disciplinary community!
  • Guide design of robot
  • Understand human side
  • Advance scientific understanding of both
  • Human-centered design
  • Measurements and Evaluation
  • Usability
  • Teach-ability
  • Variation with gender, age, culture, etc.

SCIENCE

HCI

ROBOTICS & AI

  • Robotic design
  • Real-world autonomy
  • Task performance
  • Perception, Decision making, Knowledge, Learning, Emotion, Personality, etc.
ingredients challenges of sociable robots
Ingredients & challenges of sociable robots
  • Life-like behavior
    • Real-world Autonomy
    • Believability
    • Commonsense
  • Human aware
    • Perceiving people
      • Speech, gesture, expression,etc.
    • Understanding people
      • ToM, empathy, story-based, BDI, etc.
  • Being understood
    • Self understanding
      • ToM, autobiographic memory, etc.
    • Readable
      • Adhere to human ToM of robot
  • Socially situated learning
    • Tutelage, imitation, goal emulation, training, etc.
  • Evaluation criteria
  • Human psychology
  • Ethics