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Sociable Robots Peeping into the Human World. An Infant’s Advantages. Non-hostile environment Actively benevolent, empathic caregiver Co-exists with mature version of self. Baby Scheme. Physical form can evoke nurturing response Caregiver exaggerates voice, gestures. Kismet – a Baby Robot.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Sociable Robots

Peeping into the Human World

an infant s advantages
An Infant’s Advantages
  • Non-hostile environment
  • Actively benevolent, empathic caregiver
  • Co-exists with mature version of self
baby scheme
Baby Scheme
  • Physical form can evoke nurturing response
  • Caregiver exaggerates voice, gestures
requirements
Requirements
  • Robot needs to perceive human state
    • Computer vision, speech processing
  • Human needs to perceive robot state
    • Animatronics, speech generation
  • Closed loop interaction requires both directions
readable locus of attention
Readable locus of attention

Attention can be deduced from behavior

Or can be expressed more directly

computing locus of attention
Computing locus of attention

“Cyclopean” camera

Stereo pair

computing locus of attention1
Computing locus of attention

Visual input

Pre-attentive filters

Saliency map

Pursuit

(Cyclopean camera)

Primary information flow

Modulatory influence

Eye movement

Behavior system

looking preference
Looking Preference

“Seek toy” –

low skin gain, high saturated-color gain

Looking time 28% face, 72% block

“Seek face” –

high skin gain, low color saliency gain

Looking time 80% face, 20% block

  • Internal influences bias how salience is measured
  • The robot is not a slave to its environment
  • Prefers behaviorally relevant stimuli
example video1
Example (video)
  • Robot’s search is task-specific
  • Still opportunistic when appropriate
  • Visual behavior conveys degree of commitment
  • Gaze direction, expression conveys interest
interpersonal distance
Interpersonal Distance

Comfortable interaction distance

examples video
Examples (video)
  • Robot backs away if person comes too close
  • Cues person to back away too – social amplification
  • Robot makes itself salient to call a person closer if too far away

“Come hither, friend”

“Back off buster!”

negotiating object showing
Negotiating object showing

Comfortable interaction speed

Too fast –

irritation response

Too fast,

Too close – threat response

facial expressions russell scott smith
Facial Expressions(Russell, Scott&Smith)

arousal

surprise

afraid

elated

angry

stress

excitement

happy

frustrated

displeasure

pleasure

neutral

sad

content

depression

calm

fatigued

  • Emotions can be mapped to affect dimensions (Russell)
  • Facial postures are related in a systematic way to these affective dimensions (Smith & Scott)

relaxed

bored

sleepy

sleep

generating posture expressions

fear

tired

content

anger

Generating Posture, Expressions

Open stance

Low

arousal

Negative

valence

Positive

valence

High

arousal

Closed stance

slide29
But…

Is there more to life than being really, really, really, ridiculously good-looking?

fernald s results

That’s a

good bo-o-y!

No no

baby.

o

pitch, f (kHz)

pitch, f (kHz)

o

time (ms)

time (ms)

approval

prohibition

Can you

get it?

Can you

get it?

MMMM

Oh, honey.

pitch, f (kHz)

pitch, f (kHz)

o

o

time (ms)

time (ms)

attention

comfort

Fernald’s Results
  • Four cross-cultural contours of infant-directed speech
  • Exaggerated prosody matched to infant’s innate responses
evidence for fernald like contours
Evidence for Fernald-like Contours

Approval

Prohibition

Attention

Soothing

performing recognition
Performing Recognition

prohibition &

high-energy neutral

attention & approval

energy variance

soothing & low-energy neutral

pitch mean

Breazeal & Aryananda, Humanoids 2000

turn taking
Turn-Taking
  • Cornerstone of human-style communication, learning, and instruction
  • Four phases of turn cycle
    • relinquish floor
    • listen to speaker
    • reacquire floor
    • speak
  • Integrates
    • visual behavior & attention
    • facial expression & animation
    • body posture
    • vocalization & lip synchronization
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Robots can partake in “infant-caregiver” interactions
  • These interactions are rich with scaffolding acts
  • Prerequisite for socially situated learning

Kismet’s really, really, ridiculously detailed web-pages:

http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/kismet/