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Greece

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  1. The Golden Age Greece

  2. 480-338 bc was the golden age of Hellenic achievement- the peak of their culture. Art, literature, philosophy, science, mathematics all were significantly expanded (or invented) during this time. This period became the standard by which the achievements of a culture are measured. Greek art and cultural achievement (the golden age)

  3. Classical Art (why is this stuff so good?) • The people of the golden age pushed in a quest for perfection- All who come after copy them • Not until the renaissance in the 1400s will European art get BETTER than it was here. • Artists themselves were not famous (often unknown) the glory was for the polis. • Their art shows us what the Greeks thought was important • Ideals of Human beauty- strength, courage, pride. Very positive • Simplicity- each piece has a single message- uncluttered. • Form and function- everything in life should be useful and beautiful- anything worth doing is worth doing well

  4. Architecture • Magnificent public buildings were a way of showing pride in the Polis. • Like Symmetry, simplicity and balance. Buildings were open- known for columns • Building were made of white marble- often painted or covered in gold leaf. Parthenon the most famous- completed in 447 bc

  5. Doric, Ionic and Corinthian Columns

  6. An “Ideal” TempleShould be symmetrical- the length should be exactly double the front

  7. Athena Nike- Athens

  8. Erechtheion - Porch of the maidens

  9. The Oracle at Delphi

  10. The Parthenon 447 bc

  11. The Parthenon today

  12. Sculpture The Greeks celebrated Human beauty in their sculpture. Super detailed and realistic. Sculpture was made of either marble or bronze. People (esp gods) were shown nude to show their perfection.

  13. Male Perfection

  14. Females

  15. Painting • The Greeks pioneered Frescos- but few of them survived into the modern world. The best examples of painting are on their pottery. These are excellent sources of information on everyday life

  16. What is Philosophy? Search for Truth. No “right” answer- figure out what YOU believe Other cultures use religion for this- Greeks use REASON. Believed that truth was out there and humans could understand it- positive outlook. Thales 1st known philosopher (660 bc)‏

  17. Socrates 470-399 bc “The Questioner” First great philosopher To find truth- Start with a general idea, and use questions to grow more specific . (Socratic method)‏ Questioned EVERYTHING including government and gods- which made him unpopular- executed 399 bc

  18. Plato 427-347 bc. “the perfectionist” Socrates student The way to find truth is to look for “perfection” eliminate anything that is not perfect- all that will be left is truth. “The Republic” (Plato's perfect polis) wanted all to have a chance to succeed- and be lead by the best (distrusted democracy of Athens)‏

  19. Aristotle 384- 332 bc “the categorizer” Plato’s student. Most famous thinker of ancient world Thought human could understand anything- put things in categories so they are not so overwhelming- then you can see truth Developed scientific method. Defined various branches of science Tutor to Alexander the Great

  20. Mathematics (Pythagoras)‏ Math, science, medicine all considered philosophy because you are trying to understand the world Greeks built on ideas of Egyptians- focus on breaking down and explaining math in nature Pythagoras- said any object can be broken into a mathmatical formula Pythagorean theorem a² + b² = c²

  21. Medicine (Hippocrates)‏ Studied the human body- believed disease came from nature, not a punishment from the gods (reason)‏ said disease came from an imbalance of “humors” (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile)‏ Swore to treat anyone who needed it (Hippocratic oath)‏

  22. History! (Herodotus)‏ Greeks 1st civilization to record culture and experience- their and other people’s too. (much of what we know about ancient peoples comes from them- and isn’t always accurate)‏ Herodotus- Travelled around the Mediterranean and wrote about many cultures (including Greece) recording the past Thucydides- Wrote about a great war as it was happening, recording the effect it had on society

  23. Greek Theater- Why is it important? Theater began in religious festivals (acting out myths) but grew into entertainment – all poleis had a theater New Idea: Greeks used it to explore emotion. Allowed people to experience feelings – Catharsis Theatrical festivals huge events (like Olympics) writers competed to have plays performed. All actors male- wore masks to show character and emotion (comedy/tragedy)‏Very little props/scenery etc…

  24. Theaters

  25. Tragedies Sad ending. Common themes: People have a “flaw” that they cannot overcome. Man struggles against fate (tyche) and fails. Man is too full of pride (hubris) and is punished. Sophocles: “Electra”, “Antigone”, “Oedipus Rex” classic tragedies about fate and bad choices

  26. Comedies Happy ending (not always funny)‏ People have a conflict, but it works out in the end. Often set in polis- and use real people, issues and events to send a message (satire)‏ Aristophanes: “The Clouds” a satire of Plato's perfect polis.- there is no such thing as perfection

  27. Lyric Poetry Poems of emotion Greeks 1st people in history to spend much time writing about feelings- joy, love, friendship, loss, sorrow, etc… Poems show that Greeks encouraged freedom of expression Sappho celebrated love: friendship, family, romantic. Poems are open and honest