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Chapter 10. DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis. Table of Contents. Section 1 Discovery of DNA Section 2 DNA Structure Section 3 DNA Replication Section 4 Protein Synthesis. Section 1 Discovery of DNA. Chapter 10. Objectives.

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table of contents

Chapter 10

DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis

Table of Contents

Section 1 Discovery of DNA

Section 2 DNA Structure

Section 3 DNA Replication

Section 4 Protein Synthesis

objectives

Section 1 Discovery of DNA

Chapter 10

Objectives
  • Relate how Griffith’s bacterial experiments showed that a hereditary factor was involved in transformation.
  • Summarize how Avery’s experiments led his group to conclude that DNA is responsible for transformation in bacteria.
  • Describe how Hershey and Chase’s experiment led to the conclusion that DNA, not protein, is the hereditary molecule in viruses.
griffith s experiments

Section 1 Discovery of DNA

Chapter 10

Griffith’s Experiments
  • Griffith’s experiments showed that hereditary material can pass from one bacterial cell to another.
  • The transfer of genetic material from one cell to another cell or from one organism to another organism is calledtransformation.
slide5

Section 1 Discovery of DNA

Chapter 10

Transformation

Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept

avery s experiments

Section 1 Discovery of DNA

Chapter 10

Avery’s Experiments
  • Avery’s work showed that DNA is the hereditary material that transfers information between bacterial cells.
hershey chase experiment

Section 1 Discovery of DNA

Chapter 10

Hershey-Chase Experiment
  • Hershey and Chase confirmed that DNA, and not protein, is the hereditary material.
slide9

Section 1 Discovery of DNA

Chapter 10

Hershey and Chase’s Experiments

Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept

slide10

Section 2 DNA Structure

Chapter 10

Objectives

  • Evaluatethe contributions of Franklin and Wilkins in helping Watson and Crick discover DNA’s double helix structure.
  • Describethe three parts of a nucleotide.
  • Summarizethe role of covalent and hydrogen bonds in the structure of DNA.
  • Relatethe role of the base-pairing rules to the structure of DNA.
slide11

Section 2 DNA Structure

Chapter 10

DNA Double Helix

  • Watson and Crick created a model of DNA by using Franklin’s and Wilkins’ DNA diffraction X-rays.
slide12

Section 2 DNA Structure

Chapter 10

DNA Double Helix

  • DNA is made of two nucleotide strands that wrap around each other in the shape of a double helix.
slide13

Section 2 DNA Structure

Chapter 10

DNA Double Helix, continued

  • A DNA nucleotide is made of a 5-carbon deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or thymine (T).
slide14

Section 2 DNA Structure

Chapter 10

DNA Nucleotides, continued

  • Bonds Hold DNA Together
    • Nucleotides along each DNA strand are linked by covalent bonds.
    • Complementary nitrogenous bases are bonded by hydrogen bonds.
slide15

Section 2 DNA Structure

Chapter 10

Complementary Bases

  • Hydrogen bonding between the complementary base pairs, G-C and A-T, holds the two strands of a DNA molecule together.
slide16

Section 3 DNA Replication

Chapter 10

Objectives

  • Summarize the process of DNA replication.
  • Identifythe role of enzymes in the replication of DNA.
  • Describehow complementary base pairing guides DNA replication.
  • Comparethe number of replication forks in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells during DNA replication.
  • Describe how errors are corrected during DNA replication.
slide17

Section 3 DNA Replication

Chapter 10

How DNA Replication Occurs

  • DNA replicationis the process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides.
slide18

Section 3 DNA Replication

Chapter 10

How DNA Replication Occurs, continued

  • Steps of DNA Replication
    • Replication begins with the separation of the DNA strands by helicases.
    • Then, DNA polymerases form new strands by adding complementary nucleotides to each of the original strands.
slide20

Section 3 DNA Replication

Chapter 10

How DNA Replication Occurs, continued

  • Each new DNA molecule is made of one strand of nucleotides from the original DNA molecule and one new strand. This is called semi-conservative replication.
slide21

Section 3 DNA Replication

Chapter 10

Replication Forks Increase the Speed of Replication

slide22

Section 3 DNA Replication

Chapter 10

DNA Errors in Replication

  • Changes in DNA are calledmutations.
  • DNA proofreading and repair prevent many replication errors.
slide23

Section 3 DNA Replication

Chapter 10

DNA Errors in Replication, continued

  • DNA Replication and Cancer
    • Unrepaired mutations that affect genes that control cell division can cause diseases such as cancer.
slide24

Section 4 Protein Synthesis

Chapter 10

Objectives

  • Outline the flow of genetic information in cells from DNA to protein.
  • Compare the structure of RNA with that of DNA.
  • Describethe importance of the genetic code.
  • Compare the role of mRNA, rRNA,and tRNA in translation.
  • Identifythe importance of learning about the human genome.
slide25

Section 4 Protein Synthesis

Chapter 10

Flow of Genetic Information

  • The flow of genetic information can be symbolized as DNA RNA protein.
slide26

Section 4 Protein Synthesis

Chapter 10

RNA Structure and Function

  • RNA has the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose and uracil in place of thymine.
  • RNA is single stranded and is shorter than DNA.
slide27

Section 4 Protein Synthesis

Chapter 10

RNA Structure and Function, continued

  • Types of RNA
    • Cells have three major types of RNA:
      • messenger RNA(mRNA)
      • ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
      • transfer RNA (tRNA)
slide28

Section 4 Protein Synthesis

Chapter 10

RNA Structure and Function, continued

  • mRNA carries the genetic “message” from the nucleus to the cytosol.
  • rRNA is the major component of ribosomes.
  • tRNA carries specific amino acids, helping to form polypeptides.
slide29

Section 4 Protein Synthesis

Chapter 10

Transcription

  • During transcription, DNA acts as a template for directing the synthesis of RNA.
slide31

Section 4 Protein Synthesis

Chapter 10

Genetic Code

  • The nearly universal genetic code identifies the specific amino acids coded for by each three-nucleotide mRNA codon.
slide32

Section 4 Protein Synthesis

Chapter 10

Translation

  • Steps of Translation
    • During translation, amino acids are assembled from information encoded in mRNA.
    • As the mRNA codons move through the ribosome, tRNAs add specific amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain.
    • The process continues until a stop codon is reached and the newly made protein is released.
slide34

Section 4 Protein Synthesis

Chapter 10

The Human Genome

  • The entire gene sequence of the human genome, the complete genetic content, is now known.
  • To learn where and when human cells use each of the proteins coded for in the approximately 30,000 genes in the human genome will take much more analysis.