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  1. The Information Processing Approach Compare and contrast the following terms, giving specific examples of how these should be considered when teachers design classroom activities: a. rote rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal; b. declarative, procedural, and imagery organizations of knowledge; c. constructivist learning vs. direct or explicit teaching; Developed by W. Huitt (1999)

  2. Types of Rehearsal As discussed previously, there are two major types of rehearsal discussed in the information processing approach to learning: • rote rehearsal (which results in labeling) • elaborative rehearsal (which results in meaning)

  3. Types of Rehearsal More often than not, rote rehearsal does not result in learning. In general, the more elaboration (extensions, connections, etc.), the more likely learning is to occur.

  4. Organization of Knowledge As information is stored in long-term memory, it is organized using one or more structures: • declarative, • procedural, and/or • imagery.

  5. Organization of Knowledge Declarative memory (information that can be most easily "declared" or stated is further subdivided into two types: • semantic • episodic

  6. Organization of Knowledge Semantic refers to information (e.g., facts and generalized information such as concepts, principles, rules; problem-solving strategies; and learning strategies) stored in networks. Episodic refers to information relative to experiences (e.g., stories and sequences of events), most often with a personal connection.

  7. Organization of Knowledge The following are some terms often associated with semantic organizations of memory: Networks of connected ideas or relationships; data structures or procedures for organizing the parts of a specific experience into a meaningful system (like a standard or stereotype) Schema / Schemata

  8. Organization of Knowledge The following are some terms often associated with semantic organizations of memory: An organization of concepts, principles, rules, etc. that define a perspective and presents specific action patterns to follow (used in Piagetian theory) Scheme

  9. Organization of Knowledge The following are some terms often associated with semantic organizations of memory: A set of propositions or equations describing in simplified form some aspects of our experience. Every model is based upon a theory or paradigm, but the theory or paradigm may not be stated in a concise form. Model

  10. Organization of Knowledge The following are some terms often associated with semantic organizations of memory: The basic way of perceiving, thinking, valuing, and doing associated with a particular vision of reality Paradigm

  11. Organization of Knowledge The following are some terms often associated with semantic organizations of memory: Interconnected set of concepts and relationships; if / then statements (smallest unit of information that can be judged true or false) Proposition

  12. Organization of Knowledge The following are some terms often associated with semantic organizations of memory: Complex organization including concepts and visualizations that provide a reference within which stimuli and actions are judged (also called "Frame of Reference") Frame

  13. Organization of Knowledge The following are some terms often associated with semantic organizations of memory: Set of rules that define what to do in a particular situation Program

  14. Organization of Knowledge The following are some terms often associated with semantic organizations of memory: Declarative knowledge structure that captures general information about a routine series of events or a recurrent type of social event, such as eating in a restaurant or visiting the doctor Script

  15. Organization of Knowledge The second major organization is called procedural memory and is exemplified by your knowing how to drive a car or ride a bike. Anything that is easier to show someone rather than tell them about it is likely stored in procedural memory.

  16. Organization of Knowledge The third organizational storage system--imagery--is often left out of discussions of organizations of long-term memory. One reason is that the image must be tied to declarative memory in some way if it is to be easily recalled.

  17. However, Pylyshin (1973) has demonstrated conclusively that information stored in images is operated on differently than that stored in the other two systems. Pylyshyn, Z. (1973). What the mind’s eye tells the mind’s brain: A critique of mental imagery. Psychological Bulletin, 80, 1-24. Organization of Knowledge

  18. Constructivist Learning Principles of the constructivist approach to learning are based on the work of such cognitive psychologists and philosophers as: • Jean Piaget • John Dewey • Lev Vygostsky • Jerome Bruner • Ulrick Neisser