a study in scarlet n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
“A Study In Scarlet” PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
“A Study In Scarlet”

“A Study In Scarlet”

195 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

“A Study In Scarlet”

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. “A Study In Scarlet” The Theology OfBlood And Sacrifice Kevin Kay

  2. A Study In Scarlet • OT Sacrifices • Theology Of Blood • “Forgiveness” Under The Old Covenant • Typology Of Old Testament Sacrifice • Penal Substitution • Practical Lessons For Us Today Appendix B: “Objections To Penal Substitution” Kevin Kay

  3. OT Sacrifices Kevin Kay

  4. Meal/Grain(Lev. 2:1-16; 6:14-18; 7:9-10) Drink(Num. 15:1-12) Burnt(Lev. 1:1-17; 6:8-13) Peace(Lev. 3:1-17; 7:11-34) Sin(Lev. 4:1-35; 6:24-30) Trespass/Guilt (Lev. 5:1-6:7; 7:1-8) The Jewish Sacrifices BloodySacrifices BloodlessSacrifices • Thank Offering • Votive Offering • Freewill Offering Kevin Kay

  5. Sacrificial Ritual Kevin Kay

  6. OT Sacrificial Ritual • Presentation (1:3) • Laying On Of Hands (1:4) • Killing Of The Animal(1:5) • Blood Rite (1:5) • Preparation Of Sacrifice (1:6-7) • Sacrifice On The Altar (1:7-9) • Disposal/Dispersal Of Leftovers (7:8) Kevin Kay

  7. The Presentation • Worship God • Honor God • Get Rid Of Sin • Live In Fellowship • Come Obediently To God (Morris, AMS, 45) Kevin Kay

  8. J. H. Kurtz: “According to the unanimous tradition of the Jews, averbal confession of sins was associated with the imposition of hands….” (Bold emphasis added, SWOT, footnote 1, 83) Laying On Of Hands • Lay: Not touch, but press or lean • Confession of sins [?] (cf. Lev. 16:21) • Significance: • Identification: “This is my offering” • Transferal: Offerer’ssins transferred to animal • Substitution: Animal substitutes for offerer E. R. Leach: “The plain implication is that, in some metaphysical sense, the victim is a vicarious substitutionfor the donor himself.” (Bold emphasis added, Culture and Communication, p. 89, quoted in Wenham, “Leviticus,” NICOT, 62) Kevin Kay

  9. Killing Of The Animal • Worshipper killed, skinned, gutted, & cut up the animal • At the north side of the altar (Lev. 1:5, 11) • At the door of the tabernacle (Lev. 3:2, 8, 13) • Altar associated with door (Lev. 1:5; 4:7, 18; 17:6) • Birds killed by priest (Lev. 1:14-15; 5:7-8; 14:48-50) Leon Morris: “In this way he gave symbolic expression to his recognition that his sin merited the severest punishment. He himself performed the act which set forth the truth that he deserved death.” (Bold emphasis added, AMS, 48) David McClister: “The death of a fleshly animal represented the sinner’s death to his flesh and its desires, a dying to that way of life that is dominated by the flesh.” (Bold emphasis added, PHSS,105) Kevin Kay

  10. Worshipper & Priest “Dirty Work” Kevin Kay

  11. Tabernacle & Court Laying on Hands Killing Washing Sacrifice Blood Rite N W E S Wenham, NICOT, 52

  12. Kevin Kay

  13. Blood Rite Burnt Offering Peace Offering Trespass Offering B B B B Blood of bird drained on side of altar Kevin Kay

  14. Blood Rite Sin Offering Priest or Congregation B horns B 7x B base Kevin Kay

  15. Blood Rite Sin Offering Ruler or Commoner B horns B base Blood of bird sprinkled on side of altar and rest drained at base Kevin Kay

  16. The Sacrifices Kevin Kay

  17. “Fat” = The Best • “The fat of the land” (Gen. 45:18) • “Fat of kidneys of wheat” (Dt. 32:14 YLT) • “The fat of wheat” (Psa. 81:16 YLT) • “The fat of oil and fat of wine” (Num. 18:12) • “The fat of the mighty” (2 Sam. 1:22) Kurtz, SWOT, 222

  18. Disposition Of Sacrifice Kevin Kay

  19. Order Of Sacrifices ISBE, 4:272

  20. Purpose Of The Sacrifices • Burnt:Atonement & consecration (1:4, 9) • Grain: Atonement & remuneration (2:2-3; 6:16ff) • Peace: Fellowship & celebration (Dt. 12:5-7) • Sin: Atonement & purification (4:20; 12:8) • Trespass: Atonement & restitution (5:6, 10, 13, 16, 18; 6:7) • Drink: Propitiation(Num. 15:7) Kevin Kay

  21. “Sweet Aroma” • Burnt (Lev. 1:9, 13, 17; 8:21; 23:18) • Grain (Lev. 2:2, 9, 12; 6:15, 21; 23:13, 18) • Peace (Lev. 3:5, 16; 17:5-6) • Sin (Lev. 4:31) • Trespass • Drink (Lev. 23:18; Num. 15:7) Kevin Kay

  22. Scheduled Sacrifices(Num. 28-29) Grain & Drink Grain & Drink Peace Offering 2 Lambs (Lev. 23:19) Per Day Kevin Kay

  23. Yom Kippur Sacrifices • Some of these sacrifices may be the same (color coded) • The sacrifices in Num. 29 may be additional sacrifices* Kevin Kay

  24. Scheduled Sacrifices(Num. 28-29) Grain & Drink Kevin Kay

  25. Conditional Sacrifices • Unintentional sin(Lev. 4; 5:17-19) • Unintentional contamination(Lev. 5:1-3) • Failing to keep a vow(Lev. 5:4) • Unintentional sins against “holy things”(Lev. 5:15) • Lying and swearing falsely(Lev. 6:1-7) • Consecration of priests(Lev. 8-9) • Purification after childbirth(Lev. 12:1-8) • Cleansing of a leper(Lev. 14:1-32) Kevin Kay

  26. Conditional Sacrifices • Male bodily discharge (Lev. 15:13-15) • Female bodily discharge (Lev. 15:29-30) • Fornication with a betrothed slave girl (Lev. 19:20-22) • The Nazirite vow(Num. 6) • Dedication of the altar (Num. 7) • Consecration of Levites(Num. 8) • Atonement for unintentional sin (Num. 15:22-31) Kevin Kay

  27. Conditional Sacrifices • Ritual of the red heifer (Num. 19) • Return of the ark (1 Sam. 6) • Before battle at Mizpah(1 Sam. 7:9) • Coronation of Solomon(1 Chr. 29:21) • Solomon’s sacrifices at Gibeon(1 Ki. 3:3-6) • Dedication of the temple (1 Ki. 8:63-64) • Many unspecified animal sacrifices on other occasions Kevin Kay

  28. Theology Of Blood Kevin Kay

  29. Blood, Life, & Atonement • Lev. 17:11: 11‘For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that makes atonement for the soul.’ • Blood makes atonement for the soul (NKJV; KJV; NIV; YLT) • Blood makes atonement because of the life it represents (ASV; ESV; HCSB; LEB; NET; NAB; NASB; RSV) Leon Morris: “This understanding of the Hebrew signifies that it is because of the connection of life and blood that blood makes atonement.” (Bold emphasis added, AMS, 53) Kevin Kay

  30. Blood & Forgiveness • Heb. 9:22: 22And according to the law almost all things are purified with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no remission. What’s The Connection? Kevin Kay

  31. Significance Of Blood Kevin Kay

  32. Blood Means “Life” • E. O. James: “In the ritual shedding of blood it is not the taking of life but the giving of life that really is fundamental, for blood is not death but life.” (Origins Of Sacrifice, 33) • David McClister: “Atonement, then, is not a simple matter of a death. Atonement is also a matter of a life(symbolized by blood) given to God (at the symbolic location of the altar).” (Bold emphasis added, PHSS, 106) Kevin Kay

  33. Blood Means “Life” • Gen. 9:4: 4“But you shall not eat flesh with its life, thatis,its blood. • Lev. 17:11: 11‘For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that makes atonement for the soul.’ • Dt. 12:23: 23“Only be sure that you do not eat the blood, for the blood is the life; you may not eat the life with the meat. Kevin Kay

  34. Blood Means “Life”(Hebrew Parallelism) • Gen. 9:5: 5Surely for your lifeblood I will demand a reckoning; from the hand of every beast I will require it, and from the hand of man. From the hand of every man’s brother I will require the life of man. • Psa. 72:14: 14 He will redeem their life from oppression and violence; And precious shall be their blood in His sight. Kevin Kay

  35. Blood Means “Life” • Eating fleshand blood prohibited (cf. Lev. 3:17; 6:30; 7:26-27; 17:10, 12; 19:26; Dt. 12:16; 15:23; 1 Sam. 14:33-34) • David refused to “drink the bloodof the men that went in jeopardy of their lives” (2 Sam. 23:14-17; 1 Chr. 11:16-19) • Shed blood can cry out to God (Gen. 4:10; Job 16:18) Kevin Kay

  36. “Blood” Means Death • “Blood” most often denotes death by violence • “Bloodshed” (Gen. 9:6; 37:26; Hos. 4:2) • “Blood guiltiness” (Josh. 2:19; 2 Sam. 1:16) • “Blood vengeance” (Num. 35:19, 26-27) • “Life” often means “life yielded up in death” Kevin Kay

  37. Shedding Blood = Taking Life • Gen. 37:21-22: 21But Reuben heard it, and he delivered him out of their hands, and said, “Let us not kill him.” 22And Reuben said to them, “Shed no blood, but cast him into this pit….” • Gen. 37:26: 26So Judah said to his brothers, “What profit isthere if we kill our brother and conceal his blood? Kevin Kay

  38. Shedding Blood = Taking Life • 1 Sam. 19:5: 5“For he took his life in his hands and killed the Philistine….You saw it and rejoiced. Why then will you sin against innocent blood, to kill David without a cause?” • Jer. 26:15: 15“But know for certain that if you put me to death, you will surely bring innocent blood on yourselves, on this city, and on its inhabitants….” Kevin Kay

  39. Blood Means “Death” Rom. 5:9-10: 9 Much more then, having now been justifiedby Hisblood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him. 10 For if when we were enemies we were reconciled to God throughthe deathof His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life. Kevin Kay

  40. Blood Means “Death” Eph. 2:13, 16: 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near by the bloodof Christ. …. 16 and that He might reconcile them both to God in one body through the cross, thereby putting to death the enmity. Kevin Kay

  41. “Blood” Means Death • Leon Morris: “As far as it goes, the statistical evidence indicates that the association most likely to be conjured up when the Hebrews heard the word ‘blood’ was that of violentdeath.” (Bold emphasis added, APC, 114) • A. M. Stibbs: “Blood is a visible token of lifeviolently ended; it is a sign of life either given or taken in death.” (Bold emphasis added, MWBS, 30) Kevin Kay

  42. Lev. 17:11:Atonement By Death, Not Life • Blood of atonement given “upon the altar” after sacrificial animal was killed • Blood of animal was not blood coursing through its veins but blood shed • “Life” (nephesh) can mean “life yielded up in death” • Other OT passages point to atonement through death, not offering up life Kevin Kay

  43. “Blood” Means Death • Bloodis thelife of the flesh, but blood poured out signifies death • Many passages concerning “blood” are obviously figurative • Death as the penalty for sin suggests that the significance of the animal sacrifices was the infliction of death, not the presentation of life Kevin Kay

  44. “Blood” Used Metaphorically • “Arrows drunk with blood” (Dt. 32:42) • “The moon [turned] into blood” (Joel. 2:31) • Joab “shed the blood of war in peace, and put the blood of war upon his girdle…” (1 Ki. 2:5) • Righteous wash their feet in the blood of the wicked (Psa. 58:10; cf. 68:23) • “O earth, do not cover my blood” (Job 16:18) • “Your hands are full of blood” (Isa. 1:15) Kevin Kay

  45. “Blood” Means “Death” J. Armitage Robinson: “To the Jewish mind ‘blood’ was not merely – nor even chiefly – the life-current flowing in the veins of the living: it was especially the life poured out in death; and yet more particularly in its religious aspect it was the symbol of sacrificial death.” (St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians, 1904, p. 29) Kevin Kay

  46. The Meaning Of Blood:A “Sticky Wicket” James Moffatt: “Semitic scholars warn us against finding in these words (Lv. 1711) either the popular idea of the substitution of the victim for the sinner, or even the theory that the essential thing in sacrifice is the offering of a life to God.” (Quoted in Leon Morris, APC, 127) Kevin Kay

  47. “Forgiveness” Under The Old Covenant Kevin Kay

  48. “Forgiveness” Under OT??? Kevin Kay

  49. “Forgiveness” Under OT • Animal sacrifices brought about “atonement” and “forgiveness” (Lev. 4:20, 26, 31, 35; 5:10, 13, 16, 18; 6:7; 19:22) • Sit down with Abraham, Isaac, & Jacob in kingdom (Mt. 8:11; Lk. 13:28) • Moses & Elijah at transfiguration (Mt. 17:1-13) Kevin Kay

  50. No “Forgiveness” Under OT • Could not be justified by law of Moses (Acts 13:39) • Law made nothing perfect (Heb. 7:18-19) • Sacrifices could not perfect conscience (Heb. 9:9-10) Kevin Kay