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Nanotechnology: Applications, Impacts, Challenges, and Trends. Joe Kostkowski Dan McDonald April 29, 2005. Applications and Impacts. Applications and Impacts Energy. energy efficiency and supply provide food and water worldwide dwindling fossil-fuel reserves solar power Batteries

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nanotechnology applications impacts challenges and trends

Nanotechnology: Applications, Impacts, Challenges, and Trends

Joe Kostkowski

Dan McDonald

April 29, 2005

applications and impacts energy
Applications and ImpactsEnergy
  • energy efficiency and supply
    • provide food and water worldwide
  • dwindling fossil-fuel reserves
    • solar power
  • Batteries
    • nanotube technology
applications and impacts environment and health
Applications and ImpactsEnvironment and Health
  • environmental protection
  • source reduction
    • manufacturing process
    • raw materials
  • “As we enter the 21st century, nanotechnology will have a major impact on the health, wealth and security of the world’s people that will be at least as significant in this century as antibiotics, the integrated circuit, and man-made polymers.”

-Interagency Working Group on Nanoscience, Engineering and Technology Report (1999)

applications and impacts defense
Applications and ImpactsDefense
  • Smart Uniforms
    • Self-contained computer network
    • Lighter, more durable body armor
    • “nanomuscle fibers” to enhance a soldier’s strength
  • Nanomaterials in weapons
  • Nanotechnology-based information systems
applications and impacts aerospace
Applications and ImpactsAerospace
  • Size, weight, and power consumption are all critical factors
  • Nanoelectronics
  • Batteries, fuel cells, and solar cells
applications and impacts electronics industry
Applications and ImpactsElectronics Industry
  • Current lithography techniques have limitations
  • Molecular electronics
applications and impacts snap
Applications and ImpactsSNAP
  • Superlattice Nanowire Pattern Transfer
  • Reliably creates small features cheaper than E-beam lithography
trends energy environment and health
TrendsEnergy, Environment and Health
  • renewable energies - Consumption, Dependence
  • Liability – Trust, “wow to yuck” trajectory
trends automotive industry
TrendsAutomotive Industry
  • Trends in safety and efficiency
    • Nanomaterials in catalytic converters
    • Fuel additives to increase fuel efficiency
    • Lightweight materials
trends intellectual property rights
TrendsIntellectual Property Rights
  • Rapidly increasing number of patents containing “nano”
  • Patent Office must protect intellectual property rights with-out stifling creativity
challenges energy
ChallengesEnergy
  • Research to consumers
    • demand
    • Clear schedule
  • dot-com explosion
  • Biotechnology
  • Military
    • Battery packs
challenges electronics
ChallengesElectronics
  • Will nanowires or carbon nanotubes appear in next-generation transistors?
  • CNTs
    • Good performance
    • High carrier mobility
  • Nanowires
    • Can be doped for specific applications
challenges environment and health
ChallengesEnvironment and Health
  • flow of nanoparticles into the environment
    • quantum dots
    • Bioaccumulation
  • exposure to nanopollution
    • inhalation, dermal, eye, and oral
    • Examples
      • Titanium Dioxide, Carbon Black, and Diesel particles
  • Societal Activities
    • transportation, urban development and information management
challenges ethical issues
ChallengesEthical Issues
  • Will nanotechnology live up to the hype?
  • “Grey goo” theory
  • Ill-defined boundaries of nanotechnology will make regulation difficult