CRIMINAL PROCEDURE Class Ten
Today’s Topics: Bail • Tensions • Constitutional Basis • Mechanics • Federal Act • Miscellaneous Issues • Capital Murder • Juveniles • Post-Conviction
Today’s Topics: Discovery • Issues • D’s Discovery • Mechanics • Constitutional Duty • Preservation of Evidence • Prosecutor’s Discovery
CHAPTER SEVEN BAIL AND PRETRIAL DETENTION
Initial Considerations • What is the purpose of bail pending trial?
Initial Considerations • Suspect/Defendant View • Query: What “costs” are associated with pretrial detention? • Query: How might pretrial imprisonment prejudice merits of D’s case? • Government/Society View • Query: What are the chief interests of State?
Constitutional Basis • Article I, Section 9 • Gives person in custody right to seek writ of habeas corpus • “The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the pubic Safety may require it”
Constitutional Basis • 8th Amendment • “Excessive bail shall not be required, …”
Congressional Power to Limit Bail • Carlson v. Landon • Civil action • Denial bail to alien communists awaiting deportation hearings • Rationale: 8th Amd prohibits excessive bail but does not require bail
State Constitutional Provisions • Many states, including Texas, have added a bail requirement to the State Constitution • Texas Constitution, Article I, Sections 11 and 11(a) • Even where Texas Constitution provides that bail can be denied, D.A. must do something to trigger
Mechanics: Delivery Methods • Cash Bail • Including bail bondsman
Mechanics: Delivery Methods • 10% Plan • D pays directly to Court • Often “assignable” • Personal Bond • “Personal recognizance”
Bondsmen • Important role in determining which defendants are released and which remain incarcerated • Uniquely American • Private citizens • Traditionally broad discretion to establish collateral and to retrieve clients
Exercise: Private Bail Bondsmen • Identify a minimum of 3 arguments supporting a private bonding system • Identify a minimum of 3 arguments against a private bonding system
Setting Bail • Judge Discretion • Amount • Criteria
Setting Bail • Schedules • Significant Factors • Seriousness of offense • Strength of prosecutor’s case • Defendant’s prior criminal record
Federal Act: 1966 • Purpose: Encourage federal courts to release people without requiring them to go through bail bondsmen • Focus: What amount would reasonably assure trial appearance?
Federal Act: 1966 • Missing Element: Did not permit D to be confined pending trial because of perceived risk of general danger to community
Federal Act: 1984 • Preference: Release on personal recognizance • Recognizes: Danger to community as factor
Federal Act: 1984 • Procedure: Hearing at which judicial officer may determine if any conditions can adequately protect against bail flight risk and community danger • Rebuttable Presumptions: Certain offenses and certain offenders --- no conditions adequate to warrant pretrial release • Conditions: Judge can add least restrictive means necessary
Pretrial Detention vs. Conditional Release • Distinct concepts • Reno v. Koray
Constitutionality of Federal Bail Reform Act • Issue: Is “preventive detention” prior to trial constitutional? • Due process violation? • 8th Amd violation? • United States v. Salerno
Other Types of Preventive Detention • Confinement in mental institution following verdict of “not guilty by reason of insanity” • Civil commitment of sex offender following discharge of criminal punishment
Miscellaneous Issues • Capital Offenses • Long standing rule that permissible to deny where proof gives rise to strong presumption of guilt • Practice Tip: Defense attorney may still want to pursue bail hearing even if release unlikely. Why?
Miscellaneous Issues • Juvenile Offenders • Difficult to establish right to bail
Miscellaneous Issues • Post-Conviction Bail • No constitutional right to bail or release pending appeal • Federal Bail Reform Act of 1984 frowns on release • Texas more liberal than federal system, but limits by punishment assessed and type of crime
CHAPTER EIGHT DISCOVERY
General Concepts • No general right to discovery in criminal cases • Much more limited than typical civil case
General Concepts • Role of 5th Amd in prosecution’s right to discovery • Limits on D’s right to discovery primarily result of Rules of Procedure, not constitutional limitations
Issues and Tensions • Arguments against discovery by D • Gov’t should not have to share information when D cannot be compelled to do same • Likely to endanger witnesses • Places D in better position to commit perjury • Promotes fishing expeditions
Issues and Tensions • Arguments favoring discovery by D • Promotes guilty pleas • Best protection against manipulation = early exposure of facts and enforcement of ethical rules
Issues and Tensions • ABA Position: Administrative advantages • Expeditious resolution • Reduces motions • Minimizes inequities among similarly situated Ds • Reduces collateral attacks
D’s Discovery: Basics • Extent to which discovery as matter of right exists depends on local law • Judge discretion to order enlarged discovery varies by jurisdiction • Prosecutor discretion • Open file policy • “Discovery by Grace”
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • Query: To which of the following items is D entitled to discovery under Federal Rules?
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • Grand Jury Transcript • Defendant’s own statement • Witness statement after direct testimony at trial • Anything exculpatory
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • Names and Addresses of Witness?
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • D’s Statements? • D’s oral statements to undercover agents? Non government agents?
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • Co-Defendant Statements?
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • Witness Statements?
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • D’s Prior Criminal Record?
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • Witness’s Prior Criminal Record?
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • Evidence Obtained from or Belonging to D?
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • Offense Reports?
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • Autopsy Reports? Other Forensic Reports? • Medical? • Psychiatric? • Blood tests? • Handwriting or fingerprinting comparisons?
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • Summary Proposed Expert Witness Testimony?
Application Exercise: Federal Rule 16 • Information Concerning Potential Juror’s Prior Service?
Mechanics • Motion for Discovery • Motion to Suppress • Motion to Reduce Bail
Constitutional Duty • Exists independently of obligations imposed by discovery rules • Informed by due process clause [5th Amd] • Types of evidence impacted • Exculpatory information [Brady rule] • False evidence • Continuing duty
Preliminary Exercise • Facts: You are the prosecutor in the Sally Vee aggravated sexual assault case against Johnny Dee. Her claim is that she was raped, at knifepoint, inside of her apartment by a stranger she later identified in a lineup. D has consistently asserted his innocence, offering investigating officers an alibi defense. Court-appointed defense counsel has filed a Motion for Discovery seeking “anything exculpatory” in your files.
Preliminary Exercise • Query: What should you do about disclosing each of the following. Why?