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The Role of Monarchs in Asia. “Gender and Power in Early Imperial China: Conflicting Narratives on Empress Lǚ “. The first Chinese emperor of Qin dynasty — Qin Shihuang (259 BC---210 BC). Sima Qian (145 BC—87 BC). A great historian and writer. As a father of Chinese

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the role of monarchs in asia

The Role of Monarchs in Asia

“Gender and Power in Early Imperial China: Conflicting Narratives on Empress Lǚ“

slide3

SimaQian

(145 BC—87 BC)

A great historian and

writer.

As a father of Chinese

historiography

slide4

Records of the Grand Historian

(Shi Ji) 史記

The first systematic Chinese historical text, influenced Chinese historiography and

Prose.

Five sections:

1. Benji( Basic Annals)

2. Shijia (Genealogies)

3. Liezhuan (Biographies)

4. Biao (Tables)

5. Shu: (Treatises)

slide5

Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty I.

Translated by Burton Watson. Rev. ed.

New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

slide6

Empress Lǚ

呂雉 ( L üZhi)

241 BC—180 BC

The first Female

empress from commoner status.

the summary of the basic annals of empress l
The summary of The Basic Annals of Empress Lǚ (呂后本紀)

Empress Lǚ married Emperor Gāozǔ of Hànwhen Emperor Gāozǔ of Hàn was still a civilian. She gave birth to a son and a daughter. When her husband became the emperor, her son was made crown prince. Nevertheless, as Emperor Gāozǔloved Consort Qidearly, once, he intended to change the crown prince, and gave up this idea after the ministers pleaded for rectification andintervened him. When Emperor Gāozǔ passed away, the crown prince was enthroned as Emperor Hui. Owing to the experience in the past, Empress Lǚ, the Grand Empress, abhorred Consort Qī. She imprisoned Consort Qīin Yǒngxiàng(privy) and made her the Human Pig. When kindhearted Emperor Huìlearned about the conduct of Empress Lǚ, he cried over the cruelty of his mother. Thereafter, he indulged in sexual pleasure and ignored government affairs. He passed away a few years later. However, except for Emperor Huì, Empress Lǚ did not have any other son. As a result, in an attempt to strengthen her power and status, she offered official posts to clan members of Lǚ, and made almost all the courtiers in the court her relative. Furthermore, she murdered and cruelly killed the courtiers who were unfavorable to her, and also weakened the power of some people. Thus, within just a few years, the Kingdom of Liú (Hàn Dynasty) was fully controlled by clan members of Lǚ. In the imperious time of Empress Lǚ, although people were unwilling to accept the ruling, no one dared to rise against her aboveboard. Not until Empress Lǚ passed away did the meritorious ministers round up all the clan members of Lǚ to overthrow the regime and recapture the legitimate political power. Eventually, under the deliberation of meritorious ministers and old officers, the imperial power returned to the Liú family.

slide8

210BC

The first emperor Qin ShiHuang went to westward to the Mt. Kuaiji and then ordered people to erected a stone and carve the stone to eulogize and virtuous power of Qin.

The calligraphy of the final inscription on Mt. Kuaiji were by Li Si

會稽刻石

(stone inscription on Mount Kuaiji)

slide9

Emperor Wu of Han 漢武帝

156BC -- 87BC

He adopted the principles of Confucianism as the state philosophy and code of ethics for his empire and started a school to teach future administrators the Confucian classics.

slide10

Liu Xiang

LienüZhuan列女傳(Biographies of Exemplary Women)

Ban Zhao

NüJie女誡 Lessons for Women (also translated as Admonitions for Women)

slide11

The Five Dynasties History

(舊)五代史

Finished in 974 AD.

Compiled by the Song dynasty official-

scholar XueJuzheng. It is one of the Twenty-Four Histories recognized through Chinese history.

slide12

WǔZétiān武則天 624 -705 AD

The only female emperor

She broke all precedents when she founded her own dynasty in 690 and ruled personally from 690 to 705

Her rise and reign has been criticized harshly by Confucian historians.

slide13

Emperor Taizōng of Táng 599—649 AD s

The second emperor of the Tang Dynasty.

His "Reign of Zhenguan" (貞觀之治ZhēnguānZhīZhì) was considered a golden age of Chinese history and required study for future crown princes.

slide14

The Oath of White Horse 白馬之盟

“The whole country would send a punitive expedition against him who is not Liú 's clansmen and proclaims himself as the king of the country.”

“非劉氏而王者,天下共擊之。”

FēiLiúshìérwángzhě,tiānxiàgòngjízhī——

QianSima. Records of the Grand Historian. Edited by LongchyanGuitailang. [Taiwan: Wenshizhe publisher, 1997

slide15

Hanshu漢書

Houhanshu後漢書

Hànshū(The Book of Hanor The Book of Former Han)

Finished in AD 111

Covering the history of China from 206 BC to 25AD.

Hòuhànshū(The Book of Later Han)

Complied by Fan Ye in the 5th century.

Covering the history from 25 to 220 AD.

slide16

ZiZhiTongjian資治通鑑

A pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084.

Exposes Chinese history from -403 BCE to 959 CE,