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The Eve of Civil War. North vs. South. The North 1860 Population = 22 million Industrial society Fluid, dynamic, growing. The South 1860 Population = 9 million (3.5 to 4 million slaves) Agricultural society Static, conservative society. Antebellum North. Industrialization continued

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north vs south
North vs. South
  • The North
    • 1860 Population = 22 million
    • Industrial society
    • Fluid, dynamic, growing
  • The South
    • 1860 Population = 9 million (3.5 to 4 million slaves)
    • Agricultural society
    • Static, conservative society
antebellum north
Antebellum North
  • Industrialization continued
    • More inventions
      • John Deere: steel edged plow
      • Cyrus McCormick: reaper
    • Working conditions
      • Late 1830s: good (attraction of west)
      • After 1837: worse (surplus of labor => immigration)
    • Transportation / communication
      • Telegraph, Pony Express (1860)
      • Savannah (1819) – first oceanic steamship
      • Clipper ships, through 1850s
    • Importance: united Western farms with NE industry to create industrial North
antebellum north1
Antebellum North
  • Immigration
    • Rapid increase in immigration from Ireland, Germany
      • Ireland: UK oppression, potato famine
      • Germany: autocratic rulers, failed revolutions of 1830 & 1848
    • US seen as escape, place of hope
      • Irish to cities in NE
      • Germans to farms, cities of Midwest
antebellum north2
Antebellum North
  • Perception of immigration
    • Threat to “American way of life”
      • Economics
      • Religion (“Popery”)
      • Language
  • Reaction to immigration
    • Discrimination (“NINA”)
    • American (“Know Nothing”) Party
    • Plunge in work conditions

Ad, New York Times (1854)

antebellum north3
Antebellum North
  • Cheap labor, strikes, led to reform
    • Child labor
    • Shorter work day
    • Work conditions
  • “Organized labor” emerges
    • 1834: Nat’l Trades Union – America’s first union
antebellum south
Social Structure

Planters – owned at least 20 slaves

50,000 in 1860

2,500 owned 100-500 slaves

3 owned 500+ slaves

Small Slave Owners

Owned 2-3 slaves

Not accepted into planter society

Small farmers

No slaves (looked up to planters)

Laborers & tenants

Skilled crafters

Mobile

Antebellum South

Planter’s home

(1861)

antebellum south1
Antebellum South
  • Social structure, cont.
    • Poor whites
      • Subsistence farmers
      • Generally anti-slavery
      • “Poor white trash”; “Piney white folks”; “crackers”
    • Free blacks
      • Born or set free
      • Often educated
      • Lived in cities, for safety
    • Slaves
      • House slaves
      • Field workers
antebellum south2
Antebellum South
  • South nickname = “King Cotton”
    • 1791: 4000 bales (500 lbs. each) of cotton produced
    • 1793: invention of cotton gin
    • 1860: 4 million bales produced
  • 1860, cotton represented 2/3 of all US exports
road to civil war slavery debate
Anti-Slavery justifications

Religion: Christian ethic

Morality: slavery utterly evil

Humanity: disruption of families, cruel treatment of other humans

Freedom: denied political, civil rights

Enlightened thinking: equality denied

Pro Slavery justifications

Slaves were inferior, uncivilized, child like

“classical” civilizations used slaves

Better than “wage slave” Northern system

“Cotton Kingdom”, US depended on slavery

Bible upheld slavery

Slavery was profitable

Fear of change in relationship between whites, blacks

No alternative to slavery, in South

Slavery seen as a positive good (unified South)

Road to Civil War: Slavery Debate
road to civil war dred scott v sandford 1857
Road to Civil War: Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
  • Dred Scott was a slave owned by an army doctor
  • Owner moved to free state (Illinois)
  • Scott: am I free because I’m in a free state?
  • Supreme Court: NO!
    • Any person descended from a black African was not a citizen
    • MO Compromise was unconstitutional, b/c Congress did not have power to free all Black Africans or give them citizenship (5th Am)
  • Effectively, SC said slaves were property, it could not be excluded from North or the territories
  • North horrified!

Dred Scott

Chief Justice

Roger Taney

road to civil war
Road to Civil War
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858
    • Lincoln: coming of age of Republican cause
    • Douglas: popular sovereignty survived Dred Scott
    • Douglas won Senate seat, but Lincoln gained national attention
  • John Brown’s raid at Harper’s Ferry, 1859
    • Southern militias started training after raid
    • Secession talk increased w/ approaching election
election of 1860
Election of 1860
  • Four candidates
    • Northern Ds: Douglas (status quo, pop. Sovereignty)
    • Southern Ds: Breckenridge (protect slavery, S. rights)
    • Republican: Lincoln (against extension of slavery) (not on 10 ballots, in South)
    • Constitutional Union: Bell (status quo)
  • People went to polls knowing that six states would secede if Lincoln elected

Results

Lincoln (R): 180 ECV / 1,865,593

Breckenridge (SD): 72 ECV / 1,382,713

Douglas (ND): 12 ECV / 848,356

Bell (U): 39 ECV / 592,906

abraham lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
  • Born in KY, 1809, log cabin
  • Little formal education – self taught
  • 6’5” tall, very strong – “wrassler”
  • Moved to Springfield at age 21
  • New Orleans trip (1832)
  • Became attorney, 1 term Congressman, President
secession
Secession
  • South saw election of Lincoln as radicalization of Union
  • Secession by inauguration (4/61): SC, MI, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX
    • TX – ¼ of entire Federal army surrendered, joined confederacy
    • Feb 1861: Jefferson Davis (US Senator from SC) took oath of office as President of CSA
    • VA, AK, NC, TN joined CSA after Fort Sumter surrender
    • MO, KY divided between N, S
    • WV formed out of VA (anti-slavery part)