Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed)

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  1. Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Appendix B Psychology at Work Modified from: James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

  2. Psychology at Work

  3. Psychology at Work • Flow • Completely, involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self & time, resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills

  4. Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology • Application of psychological concepts & methods to optimizing behavior in workplaces • Personnel Psychology • Focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal & development • Organizational Psychology • Examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction & productivity & facilitates organizational change • Human Factors Psychology

  5. Personnel Psychology • Personnel psychologists’ tasks • Strength-based selection system

  6. Personnel Psychology • Unstructured interviewing & the interviewer illusion • Why the interviewer illusion exists? • Interviews disclose good intentions • Interviewers more often follow successful careers of those hired • Interviewers presume people are what they seem in interview • Interviewers’ preconceptions & moods color how they perceive interviewees’ responses.

  7. Personnel Psychology • Structured Interview (reliability/validity) • Asks same job-relevant questions of all applicants • Rated on established scales • Performance Appraisal • Who to retain • How to reward & pay • How to better harness strengths • Affirms strengths & helps motivate improvements

  8. Performance Appraisal • 360-degree feedback

  9. Organizational Psychology • Seek ways to engage & motivate ordinary people doing ordinary jobs • Employee satisfaction • Effective leadership • Harness job-relevant strengths • Set specific, challenging goals • Choose appropriate leadership style

  10. Leadership Styles • Task Leadership • Goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, & focuses attention on goals • Social Leadership • Group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, & offers support

  11. Motivation Theories • Theory X • Assumes workers basically lazy, error-prone, & extrinsically motivated by money • Workers should be directed from above • Theory Y • Assumes that, given challenge & freedom, workers motivated to achieve self-esteem & demonstrate competence & creativity

  12. Human Factors • Human Factors Psychology • Explores how people & machines interact • Explores how machines & physical environments can be adapted to human behaviors

  13. THE END