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Internet Video Conferencing History. Internet Video Conferencing. … a rose by any other name Internet videoconferencing IP-based videoconferencing (Internet Protocol) Web-based videoconferencing Desktop video conferencing a s opposed to (but still existing)

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Internet Video Conferencing History

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internet video conferencing

Internet Video Conferencing

… a rose by any other name

Internet videoconferencing

IP-based videoconferencing (Internet Protocol)

Web-based videoconferencing

Desktop video conferencing

as opposed to (but still existing)

System-based or room-based videoconferencing

VTC (video teleconferencing)

Telephony (POTS) videoconferencing

internet video conferencing1

Internet Video Conferencing

  • Traditional vs. Internet
  • Use in dedicated room
  • Use of ISDN or T1 lines
  • High installation costs
  • High usage costs
  • Usage at plateau
  • Resource scheduling
  • Technical operator
  • Centralized control
  • H.320 standard
  • Ubiquity – use anywhere
  • Leverages internet usage
  • Low installation costs
  • No/Low usage costs
  • Growing acceptance
  • Impromptu, ad hoc nature
  • Self-sufficiency model
  • Decentralized control
  • H.323 standard
internet video conferencing2

Internet Video Conferencing

What is it?

two-way or more (multipoint) video & audio communication

over a standard high speed internet connection

with standard quality of 30 frame per second video quality

using unique IP addresses for

reliable high speed internet connection (450kbps)

… some agreed upon basics

internet video conferencing3

Internet Video Conferencing

Long existing opinions:

Videoconferencing was a “next-year” technology

Limited application but not mainstream

Fine for Boardroom but not the classroom

Technologies were

too cumbersome or

too expensive and

loses the power of the face-to-face presence

internet video conferencing4

Internet Video Conferencing

Long existing proposal:

1964 Worlds Fair in New York

AT&T unveils the "PicturePhone“ to the public

AT&T vision:

PicturePhone centers nationwide (New York, Chicago)

Estimated rate of $30 for a three-minute call

Installed only at AT&T centers

Very worst of traditional VTC proposals

By 1970’s AT&T had extremely limited deployment, so they revamped for business taking and took video out of the Picturephone.

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Internet Video Conferencing

The 1970’s

Ericsson (Sweden) successfully demonstrates the trans-Atlantic LME video telephone call

1973: Network Voice Protocol (NVP)

released by the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) of USC (U. of Southern California

pioneered a computer network protocol for transporting human speech over a packetized communication network.

an early example of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology.

1976: Nippon Telegraph and Telephone establishes videoconferencing bridge between Tokyo and Osaka

Infrastructure, bandwidth, & acceptance all lacking

internet video conferencing6

Internet Video Conferencing

The Big Eighties

Packet Video Protocol (PVP) in 1981

extensions to NVP that standardize transmission protocol for video

1982: IBM Japan/US build 48,000 bps internal VTC links

1982 - Compression Labs introduces VTC product

$250,000 per unit with dedicated line cost = $1,000 per hour

system commonly trips simple 15 amp circuit breakers

1986 - PictureTelintroduces their VC offering

$80,000 per unit with dedicated lines at $100 per hour

beginning deployment in corporate environments

AT&T continues (estimated R&D costs near $1 billion)

Datapoint unveils the Multimedia Information Network eXchange (MINX) system

early picture-in-picture VC solution

source of extensive income from patent infringements rather than product sales

internet video conferencing7

Internet Video Conferencing

Into the Nineties (pt. 1)

Internet Protocol (IP) technical advances

Video compression technologies advance

Ubiquity of desktop PCs

Explosion in business & consumer use of internet in

1991: IBM introduced PicTel

early PC-based vtc system

black and white system


purchase costs of $20,000 per unit

estimated operating costs of $30 per line an hour

internet video conferencing8

Internet Video Conferencing

Into the Nineties (pt. 2)

1991 - DARTnetconnects a transcontinental IP network

12 research sites in the U.S. and the U.K.

Use of T1 trunk lines (not true IPVC)-

DARTnet, now known as the CAIRN system, still exists

Late 1990’s: beginning IPVC

Embedded within services & software offerings such as

NetMeeting (Win95)

MSN Messenger (1999)

Yahoo Messenger (1998)

Common Traits:

poor video quality

direct costs to consumers drove moderate adoption

adjunct to unified communication and web conferencing

internet video conferencing9

Internet Video Conferencing

Into the Nineties (pt. 3)

CU-SeeMee (Cornell University)

1992: Apple Macintosh launches with CU-SeeMe(no audio)

Part of 1993 Global Schoolhouse (an NSF funded education project)

1993: multipoint capability added

1994: Win-based CU-SeeMe

1995: CU-SeeMe released commercially

CU-SeeMe successes:

first referenced “video chat” term

peer-to-peer connection methodology somewhat limited applications

early adoption into school rooms and training facilities

used in 1995 television broadcast of World News Now

internet video conferencing10

Internet Video Conferencing

Into the Nineties (pt. 4)

1992: AT&T returns with $1500 videophone (small success)

1992: MBone (multicast backbone) system

. minimizes data requirements for multipoint audio/video-conferencing

free virtual network uses mroutersthat can support IP multicast

enables access to real-time interactive multimedia on the Internet

negates need for tunneling protocols with older router environments

Novell IPX Networks introduced VocalChat

Microsoft NetMeeting (from PictureTel'sLiveshare Plus)

1996 Dec: Microsoft NetMeeting v2.0b2 with video arrives

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Internet Video Conferencing

Into the Nineties (pt. 5)

Real momentum? The development and ratification of compatibility standards by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

ITU Standards Unleash Videoconferencing

ITU established the Standard H.263, which reduces bandwidth transmission for low bit-rate communications.

Other standards:

H.323 for packet-based multimedia applications

MPEG-4 ver 2.0(by The Moving Picture Experts Group) an ISO standard for multimedia content

Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) in 1999.

SIP offered even further advantages beyond H.323

Gained wide acceptance among developers and supporters (Microsoft)

internet video conferencing12

Internet Video Conferencing

The New Millennium (pt. 1)

SIP evolves as it entered version 1.30 in November of 2000. \

H.323 ver 4.0 release

Explosive growth in cell/mobile phones.

Samsung released MPEG-4 streaming 3G video cell -- huge overseas success

Microsoft announces XP Messenger fully supports SIP.

9-11 Tragedy – outcomes

Economic downturn forces cuts to corporate & institutional budgets

Travel dramatically restricted & curtailed

VTC is no longer a luxury but becomes a necessity

Portable satellite videophones used for live battlefront broadcasts

internet video conferencing13

Internet Video Conferencing

The New Millennium (pt. 2)

High-speed internet access available @ reasonable cost.

Video capture/display technologies reduced in cost.

Web cameras readily available (if not built-in)

Cost of PCs at all time low

Broadband internet access geographically available

Free/embedded functionality from leading web conferencing, instant messaging, and unified communication vendors

internet video conferencing14

Internet Video Conferencing

The New Millennium (pt. 3)

IPVC in Higher Ed

Distance learning programs are mainstays of Education degrees

Students require/demand enhanced classes with more interactive classroom-like environments.

Streaming video quality has increased while disruptive delays almost eliminate

Videoconferencing commonplace at work, home, and schools.

began providing various MPEG-4 video systems to universities in the U.S