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Philadelphia Diesel Difference Meeting Bill Boyce Cummins Westport Inc. Cummins Westport A Cummins JV Company CWI is a 50:50 joint venture company based in Vancouver, BC Cummins Inc. - w orld’s largest builder of commercial diesels,

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cummins westport a cummins jv company
Cummins WestportA Cummins JV Company
  • CWI is a 50:50 joint venture company based in Vancouver, BC
    • Cummins Inc. - world’s largest builder of commercial diesels,
    • Westport Innovations Inc. - world leader in gaseous fuel engine technology
  • CWI offers 6 to 9 litre alternative fuel automotive engines. (CNG, LNG, LPG)
  • Engines are manufactured by Cummins.
  • Local parts and service support through Cummins Distributor network.
cummins inc
Cummins Inc.
  • More than 75 years –Leader in American diesel manufacturing
  • World’s largest builder of commercial diesels
  • Designs, manufactures, distributes, and services
    • electric power generation systems, engines, and related technologies, including fuel systems, controls, air handling, filtration, and emissions solutions.
  • Headquartered in Columbus, Indiana (USA),
    • more than 550 company-owned and independent distributor locations in 160 countries and territories. With 28,000 employees worldwide
    • Cummins reported sales of $11 billion in 2006
  • Cummins product development & manufacturing alliances include:
    • Case, New Holland, IVECO, Komatsu,Westport,and Scania.
westport innovations inc
Westport Innovations Inc.
  • Recognized as the world leader in gaseous fuel engine technology
  • Originated from research at UBC in early 1990’s
  • Public company on TSE, formed in 1995
  • 170 people at Westport (including Cummins Westport, Westport Europe and Westport Germany)
  • State-of-the-art facilities inVancouver, Canada:

7,400 m2 (78,000 ft2) of laboratory and office space

  • Brought Gas expertise

Technology Innovation and

Application Award

why natural gas engines for buses trucks
Why Natural Gas Engines for Buses & Trucks?

Emissions Leadership

  • ISL G is the only Urban Bus and Truck engine that met 2010 EPA Emissions at launch in 2007
  • Greenhouse gas advantages

Emerging Economic Benefits

  • Continuous reliability improvement
  • ISL G Improved Efficiency
  • Greatest benefits in high fuel use applications
  • Energy Security
  • Reduced reliance on imported oil
  • Lower fuel costs
  • Pathway to hydrogen
simpler cleaner fuel
Simpler Cleaner Fuel

Complex Hydro Carbon

Simplest Hydro Carbon

Natural Gas (methane) has highest hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of any hydrocarbon

what is changing
What is changing?
  • Higher vehicle pricing to meet 2007 EPA requirements
  • Higher cost of Ultra Low Sulfur diesel fuel
  • Additional costs to meet 2010 EPA requirements?
  • The shifting economics of diesel operation
diesel ng pathways 2007 to 2010


Active Diesel Particulate Filters


NOx Adsorber or SCR

SCR more efficient but a liquid that will be regulated and taxed

Crank Case Ventilation (CV) ’07

Lube Oil

Will require new, low ash oil

New Oil Filters


Phase In

1.2 NOx + 0.01 PM (Avg.) in 2007

0.2 NOx + 0.01 PM in 2010

Natural Gas

No change- CNG or LNG capable

Replace Oxicat with Three Way Catalyst


No NOx adsorber required

No CV required–reduced maintenance vs. LBSI

No Change- Low Ash Oil in use today


Fleetguard Filter


No Phase In

0.2 NOx + 0.01 PM in 2007

Diesel / NG Pathways 2007 to 2010
what are your alternatives
What are your alternatives?
  • Get out your checkbook
  • Manage better
  • Keep increasing costs to a minimum
  • Change vehicle specifications
  • Maximize vehicle specs for fuel economy
  • Consider other alternatives
alternative fuel options

Biofuels (non-biodiesel ester)


Di-Methyl Ether (DME)



Gas to liquid

Coal to liquid

Water/diesel emulsions

Ethanol/diesel emulsions

Natural Gas (CNG / LNG)



Hythane (NG + H)








Alternative Fuel Options
alternative fuel properties
Alternative Fuel Properties

CharacteristicsDiesel Biodiesel MeOHEtOHNGLPG

Structure C18H36 C1 8H35O2 CH3OH C2H5OH CH4 C3H8

Cetane No. 40+ 40+ 10 10 -- 5

Octane No. -- -- 95 95 120 95

Energy (LHV)

btu/gal(x1000) 128 119 57 76 85(LNG) 84

btu/cu. ft 1000(CNG)

Energy Storage 1 1.1 2.3 1.7 1.7 (LNG) 1.6

(relative vol.) 3.7 (CNG)

volume and range comparison
Volume and Range Comparison


Tank Space per 100 mi

Range Per 100 Gallons Tank Space

650 mi

15 Gal.


380 mi

26 Gal.


170 mi

* Estimate based on 6.5 mpg diesel, and same efficiency for NG vehicle

58 Gal.

what about natural gas
What About Natural Gas ?
  • Cleaner burning than diesel
  • Abundant supply in North America
  • Engine efficiency improving over diesel
  • Renewable fuel – LFG to LNG
  • Can be less expensive to operate than diesel
  • Latest technology engines available
comparison of diesel to lng
Comparison of Diesel to LNG
  • LNG
    • 1 U.S. gallon weighs 3.4 lbs.
    • Heating value is 21,500 Btu per lb, and 73,000 Btu per gallon.
  • LNG is produced through a cryogenic process in which the gas is cooled to -258 degrees F. At that temperature point it becomes a liquid.
  • In the liquid state, the vehicle can carry more fuel than CNG in a smaller area.
  • Engine doesn’t know whether fuel is LNG or CNG, fuel enters engine as a gas.
  • Diesel
    • 1 U.S. gallon weighs 7.1 lbs.
    • Heating value is 18,250 Btu per lb and 129,575 Btu per gallon.
natural gas is a safe fuel
Lighter than air


Doesn’t accumulate in low places

Rich mixture burns off slowly

Ignites at temperatures of approx. 600 C

Non toxic

Odorless-detection fragrance is added

Evaporates quickly

Heavier than air


Accumulates in low places

Rich mixture explodes

Gas and diesel vapors ignite at approx. 200 C

Toxic, especially gasoline

Strong inherentodor

Evaporates slowly at room temperature

Natural Gas is a Safe Fuel


Liquid fuels


CWI Natural Gas Engines Reduce Urban Noise

Communities notice the natural gas noise advantage.

ONE Diesel engine idling is louder than TEN natural gas engines idling together

Natural gas is 4.7

Natural gas is 6.1

decibels quieter at

decibels quieter at

peak torque and load

peak torque and load



Decibels dB(A)

Natural gas is 11.8

Natural gas is 12.2

decibels quieter at idle

decibels quieter at idle





Low Idle, No Load

Low Idle, No Load

Peak Torque, Full Load

Peak Torque, Full Load

Engine Test Mode

Engine Test Mode

Diesel bus engine

Diesel bus engine

C Gas Plus

C Gas Plus

alternative fuel challenges
Alternative Fuel Challenges
  • Costs – Infrastructure and equipment
  • Performance
  • Emission reduction trade-offs
  • Infrastructure and fuel availability
  • Impact on engine component reliability














Heavy Vehicles


Millions of Barrels per Day



Light Trucks




























Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22, September 2002


EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2003

, January 2003

U.S. Transportation Petroleum Use

natural gas fuel costs less
Natural Gas Fuel Costs Less
  • Diesel and natural gas prices follow a fairly predictable pattern in relation to crude oil prices with natural gas being less expensive than diesel fuel
  • When crude oil prices rise, natural gas prices tend to rise less than diesel prices do, widening the price gap
  • If anything, at today’s higher crude oil prices natural gas prices are less than this historical relationship

$12.84 MMBTU = $77.04 Barrel

$12.84 MMBTU = $1.83 DGE

price comparison plot
Price Comparison Plot

Natural Gas price advantage grows as crude prices rise

  • Both diesel and natural gas prices have trended upward with crude oil prices.
  • The diesel to CNG price gap is widening.


  • CNG to Diesel fuel economy gap is closing
  • These factors can improve CNG Vehicle Life Cycle Costs.
cummins natural gas history
Cummins Natural Gas History
  • Cummins has been developing natural gas fueled engines for heavy duty vehicle applications since the 1980’s and marketing them since the early 1990’s
  • Today over 17,000 engines have been produced powered by compressed and liquefied natural gas or propane (LPG)
introducing next generation 2007 natural gas engine technology
Introducing Next Generation 2007 Natural Gas Engine Technology
  • ISL G currently meets 2010 emissions standards ahead of schedule
  • 85% lower NOx than previous engines
  • 34% more torque at idle
  • Improved efficiency = improved fuel economy
  • No exhaust related maintenance costs
four generations of natural gas engines
Four Generations of Natural Gas Engines



C8.3G Mechanical


C Gas Plus


L Gas Plus

  • ISL G
  • Stoichiometric EGR combustion
  • Three Way Catalyst
  • First HD engine certified 2010 NOx and PM levels
isl g next generation natural gas engine
ISL G – Next Generation Natural Gas Engine
  • Stoichiometric Engine
  • Lowest emissions
    • 0.20 g/bhp-hr NOx
    • 0.01 g/bhp-hr PM
  • Higher efficiency
    • Target: 5% fuel economy improvement vs. CWI’s current products
  • Diesel-like reliability & durability
  • Improved performance - Higher clutch engagement torque
the two key emission technologies for 2007 isl g natural gas engines
The Two Key Emission Technologies for 2007 ISL G Natural Gas Engines
  • Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (CEGR)
  • Three Way Catalyst (TWC)



Emissions Solutions

Change to Stoichiometric Combustion Engine.

Meet 2010 emission standards in a one step change

No further aftertreatment is required

customer experience diesel vs ng
Customer Experience-Diesel vs. NG

Just Like Cell Phones, Natural Gas Engines have Continued to Improve

*Must Have Fuel Price Differential to be lower

consider the natural gas alternative
Consider the Natural Gas Alternative
  • Things have changed since 1989
  • Meeting 2010 emissions in 2007
  • Natural gas as a lower cost alternative
  • Natural gas not for everyone
natural gas key economic drivers
Natural Gas: Key Economic Drivers
  • Six fold increase in CWI reliability/durability since 2001
  • CNG is closing maintenance cost gap
    • Basic service intervals same as diesel
    • Spark ignition will result in slightly higher scheduled maintenance costs
  • Fuel cost savings can be significant
    • CNG’s lower cost contributes to lower LCC
    • CWI Fuel economy gap closing
      • 17% in 2005
      • 10% in 2007
      • 7% in 2010
fuel pricing creates economic advantage
Fuel Pricing Creates Economic Advantage

Fuel price differential creates overwhelming benefit for NG

Natural Gas Breakeven Price:

$0.73 Less/DGE $0.93 Less/DGE $0.62 Less/DGE

$100 USD Crude!

Transit Refuse Truck

$1,500/bus/yr $1,200/truck/yr $1,200/truck/yr

200 buses 50 Trucks 50 Trucks

$7.2 M Capital $875K Capital $875K Capital

45,000 miles-3.5 mpg 15,000 miles-1.5 mpg 65,000 miles-6.5 mpg

Every 10 cents Saved in Fuel price = thousands in savings

highway energy bill private fleets currently using diesel fuel
Highway/Energy Bill Private Fleets Currently Using Diesel Fuel

Highway Bill*

Net Benefit


To Fleet


Own Infrastructure


To Fuel Provider


Don’t Own Infrastructure


To Fuel Provider or Fleet


All Infrastructure

Oct 1, 2006

Energy Bill*

$32,000 Vehicle Credit

To Fleet

$30,000 Infrastructure Credit

To Fleet

* CWI’s Interpretation Subject to IRS Rule Making

natural gas vehicles ease squeeze on city budget
Source - KFSN Fresno, CA    Friday, 21 March 2008 USA, FresnoThe Californian city of Fresno is celebrating it's investment decision of five years ago, when it switched some of it's fleet to natural gas. KFSN reports with the price of diesel fuel skyrocketing so far this year the city has been forced to pay out $400,000 dollars more to fuel its fleet than budgeted but, "we would have been $1.2 million over had we not switched to liquid natural gas (LNG)," said Joseph Oldham, Fresno Fleet Supervisor.

"Now we've seen not only emissions benefits but cost savings by running alternative fuels."  Compared to the typical diesel garbage truck the city's 80 natural gas powered ones are not only cheaper to run they're quieter and don't pollute the air as much. By the Year 2010 Fresno plans to replace its' entire fleet of garbage trucks by ones that run on natural gas, on the way to even bigger savings down the road.

Natural Gas Vehicles Ease Squeeze on City Budget
isl g applications
ISL G Applications





similar maintenance schedule
Similar Maintenance Schedule

Same Schedule as Diesel – Some Different Maintenance Items

warranty every coverage
Warranty - Every Coverage
  • Base Warranty for Bus/Shuttle, School Bus and Truck are the same as diesel
  • Extended Coverage options are available for Truck and Bus Customers
    • 5 yr 200,000 mile or 300,000 mile - Transit
    • 4 yr / 5 yr 150,000 mile Vocational -Truck
    • 4yr / 5 yr 150,000 mile Turbocharger -Truck
    • 6 yr, 300,000 mile Major Component – All applications
  • All warranty programs administered per Cummins Standard Policies
what is next
What is Next?
  • Think about what happens next with fleet fuels?
  • Think about using Natural Gas for the right applications?
  • Find the best alternative for your duty cycle?
  • Using biomethane as a renewable fuel has significant greenhouse benefits:
  • During combustion, biomethane is converted to carbon dioxide (a 21 times greenhouse gas savings)
  • Biomethane is a renewable resource that displaces fossil fuel 100%.
  • The biomethane that is burned as fuel in place of fossil fuels produces less greenhouse gas than the fuel it replaced.
  • Cummins Westport approves the use of up to 100% biomethane that meets published natural gas fuel specifications per Cummins Application Engineering Bulletins
  • Proven technology – Cummins support
  • Commercially available from OEM’s
    • Listing at
  • Lower emissions- tailpipe and community noise.
  • Lower total costs with natural gas
  • Lower Well to Wheel Greenhouse Gas
  • Biomethane low carbon option
thank you
Thank You

Bill Boyce

East Coast Regional Sales and Marketing Manager

Tel: 330-534-8352

Mobile: 330-720-9785