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Learning Objectives Chapter 6: Marketing Research. Define marketing research. Describe the reasons for doing marketing research (the five Cs) and explain why marketing research is sometimes not done. Explain how research is used in each step of the hospitality and travel marketing system.

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learning objectives chapter 6 marketing research
Learning ObjectivesChapter 6: Marketing Research
  • Define marketing research.
  • Describe the reasons for doing marketing research (the five Cs) and explain why marketing research is sometimes not done.
  • Explain how research is used in each step of the hospitality and travel marketing system.
  • List and describe the five key requirements for good research information.
  • List in order and explain the six steps in the marketing research process.
learning objectives chapter 6 marketing research1
Learning ObjectivesChapter 6: Marketing Research
  • Describe the internal and external sources of secondary research.
  • Explain the differences between primary and secondary research and list their respective advantages and disadvantages.
  • List and describe the primary research methods and differentiate between quantitative and qualitative research.
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of personal interviews, mail, telephone, in-house, self-administered, and online surveys.
learning objectives chapter 6 marketing research2
Learning ObjectivesChapter 6: Marketing Research
  • Explain the focus group approach and how it can be used in making effective marketing decisions.
marketing research
Marketing Research

The function that links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through information. The information is used to:

1. Identify and define marketing opportunities and problems.

2. Generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions.

3. Monitor marketing performance.

4. Improve understanding of marketing as a process.

reasons for doing marketing research the five cs
Reasons for Doing Marketing Research: The Five Cs
  • Customers: To determine how well customer needs are being met, investigate new target markets, and assess and test new services and facilities.
  • Competition: To identify primary competitors and pinpoint their strengths and weaknesses.
  • Confidence: To reduce the perceived risk in making marketing decisions.
reasons for doing marketing research the five cs1
Reasons for Doing Marketing Research: The Five Cs
  • Credibility: To increase the believability of promotional messages among customers.
  • Change: To keep updated with changes in travelers’ needs and expectations.
reasons for not doing marketing research
Reasons for Not Doing Marketing Research
  • Timing: It will take to much time.
  • Cost: The cost of the research is too high.
  • Reliability: There is no reliable research method available for doing the research.
  • Competitive intelligence: There is a fear that competitors will learn about the organization’s intentions.
  • Management decision: Management prefers to use own judgment.
five key requirements of marketing research information
Five Key Requirements of Marketing Research Information
  • Utility: Can we use it? Does it apply to us?
  • Timeliness: Will it be available in time?
  • Cost-effectiveness: Do the benefits outweigh the costs?
  • Accuracy: Is it accurate?
  • Reliability: Is it reliable?
marketing research programs and projects
Marketing Research Programs and Projects
  • Marketing Research Program:

A plan or program to investigate several marketing opportunities or problems (several projects).

  • Marketing Research Project:

An individual element of a marketing research program in which a specific marketing opportunity or problem is investigated.

marketing research process
Marketing Research Process
  • Formulate Problem:
  • Define research problem
  • Identify research objectives and related questions
  • Select Research Design And Data Collection Method:
  • Collect and analyze secondary information
  • Select research design and primary data collection method
marketing research process1
Marketing Research Process
  • Select Sample And Collect Data:
  • Decide on sample design and collect primary data
  • Analyze And Interpret Data
  • Analyze and interpret primary data
  • Prepare Research Report:
  • Draw conclusions and make recommendations
  • Communication of the Research Results
  • Present results to all interested parties
sources of secondary research information
Sources of Secondary Research Information

Secondary Research

Internal Data

External Data

Registrations or reservations

Government agencies

Sales or customer mix

WWW. Magazines, journals, newspapers, radio, TV




Research companies and consultants

Unfulfilled reservations/


Universities and Colleges

secondary and primary research
Secondary and Primary Research
  • Secondary:

Published information available from other sources, either internal or external

  • Primary:

Data collected for the first time, by a method other than secondary research, to answer specific questions.

advantages and disadvantages of secondary research
Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary Research
  • Advantages
  • Inexpensive
  • Easily accessible
  • Immediately available
  • Disadvantages
  • Frequently outdated
  • Potentially unreliable
  • May not be applicable
advantages and disadvantages of primary research
Advantages and Disadvantages of Primary Research
  • Advantages
  • Applicable and usable
  • Accurate and reliable
  • Up-to-date
  • Disadvantages
  • Expensive
  • Not immediately available
  • Not as readily accessible
primary research methods techniques
Primary Research Methods & Techniques

Primary Research

Quantitative Data

Qualitative Data

  • Surveys
  • Personal interview (intercepts)
  • Mail
  • In-house, self-administered
  • Telephone, fax, e-mail, Web


Focus groups

Individual depth







Case studies

primary research methods
Primary Research Methods
  • Experimental (e.g., test marketing)
  • Observational (human and mechanical)
  • Survey (mail, telephone, personal interview, in-house self-administered, online)
  • Simulation (mathematical and computer modeling)
  • Focus groups (groups of 8 to 12 people with moderator trying to reach a consensus of opinions)
personal interviews
Personal Interviews


  • High response rate
  • Great flexibility (ability to adapt/explain questions)
  • Can show or demonstrate items
  • Fuller explanations can be given
  • Very timely data
personal interviews1
Personal Interviews


  • Relatively expensive
  • Possibility of interviewer bias
  • Personal nature of questions (e.g., age or income)
  • Respondents not relaxed (put on the spot)
  • Time may not be convenient for respondents
mail surveys
Mail Surveys


  • Relatively inexpensive
  • No interviewer bias
  • Consistent questions (for all respondents)
  • Large number of respondents can be included
  • Anonymity
  • Respondents can choose the most convenient time to answer
mail surveys1
Mail Surveys


  • Low response rates (relative to other survey types)
  • Junk mail syndrome
  • Impersonal nature
telephone surveys
Telephone Surveys
  • Advantages
  • More flexibility compared to mail surveys
  • Quick and inexpensive
  • High response rates
  • Disadvantages
  • More obtrusive than mail
  • Greater difficulties in rapport building
  • Long-distance calls are expensive
in house self administered surveys
In-House, Self-Administered Surveys
  • Advantages
  • Completed by customers within the premises of a hospitality and travel organization
  • Convenient
  • Disadvantages
  • Generate low response rates
online surveys
Online Surveys
  • Advantages
  • Relative speed and flexibility
  • Large and growing audience
  • Disadvantages
  • Technical skills and time required to develop questionnaires