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Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels: From Socialism to Communism. “Workers of all lands unite. The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it” Inscription on Karl Marx’s tombstone in London. Socialist Origins. Christian Socialism. Co-operative Movement.

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karl marx friedrich engels from socialism to communism

Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels:From Socialism to Communism

“Workers of all lands unite.The philosophers have onlyinterpreted the world in various ways;the point is to change it”

Inscription on Karl Marx’s tombstone in London

socialist origins
Socialist Origins

Christian

Socialism

Co-operative

Movement

Trade

Unions

Utopian

Theorisers

Early to Mid Nineteenth Century Socialism

Revolutionary

Socialism

Democratic

Socialism

Marxism

Anarchism

Socialist

Parties

idea of socialism
Idea of Socialism
  • Latin: Socius – Companion
    • Fellowship
  • Poor, weak and oppressed need
    • Pooling of resources
    • Redistribution of wealth
    • Individual rights subordinated to Common Good
  • Intra-Inter-Multinational Oppressors
    • Natural opponent to Nationalism
roots of socialism
Roots of Socialism
  • Christian Socialism
    • Christian Doctrine
      • Community
      • Renouncing of personal wealth
      • Selflessness
      • Helping the Poor
    • Sermon on the Mount
      • Used to justify collectivism
  • Protestant versus Catholic Competition
roots of socialism5
Roots of Socialism
  • Trade Unionism
    • Collective bargaining
      • Pay and conditions
    • Artisans Guilds
      • Horizontal Craft Unions
    • Industry Wide Unions
      • Vertical Unions
  • Variety of ideologies
    • Working Class base
roots of socialism6
Roots of Socialism
  • Co-operative Movement
    • Protect members from being exploited by big business
      • Manufacturing
        • Eg Robert Owen
      • Consumer
        • Rochdale Pioneers
      • Agricultural
        • Peasant farmers agreeing to cooperate
roots of socialism7
Roots of Socialism
  • Utopian Theorists
    • French Influence
      • Inspired by French Revolution
      • Tainted by French Revolution
    • Variety of Ideas
      • Model Communes
      • Scientifically ordered society free from government interference
      • State-funded worker controlled industries
      • Egalitarianism
      • Harmony
marx the early years
Marx: The Early Years
  • Born in Prussia
    • Middle class family
    • Ancestors Rabbis
      • Although he was baptised a protestant
    • Doctorate in Materialism & Atheism in Ancient Greece
  • Hegelian
    • Joins Young Hegelian Movement at Berlin Uni
    • Historical Inevitability
      • Replaces Hegel’s Spirit with Economic Materialism
      • Rationalist rather than Romantic
    • Prussians disallow his promotion at the University
  • Journalist in Cologne
    • Criticisms of Prussian rulers leads to newspaper’s closure
  • Flees to Paris, 1843
    • Joins socialist groups
    • Writes his first communist ideas
      • Economic and Philosophical manuscripts, 1844
    • Meets Friedrich Engels
freidrich engels the early years
Freidrich Engels: The Early Years
  • Bremen
    • Wealthy family
      • Cotton workers with concerns in Belgium and Manchester
    • Sympathetic with Socialism
  • Meets Marx in Paris 1843
  • Moves to Belgium with Marx 1844
    • Joins communist League
  • 1848 – 1850 helps in Revolutions
  • 1850 returns to father’s cotton mill in Manchester
    • Supplies financial support for Karl Marx to undertake studies
marx and the 1848 revolutions
Marx and the 1848 Revolutions
  • Belgium 1844 – 1847
    • Studies History
  • London 1847 – 1848
    • Joins Communist League
    • Publishes timely Communist Manifesto
      • “A Spectre is haunting Europe – the spectre of Communism”
      • “Let the ruling classes tremble”
      • “The Proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains”
      • “Working men of all countries, unite!”
  • Paris and Berlin
    • Forced to flee back to England
das kapital
Das Kapital
  • 30 Years of Preparation
    • Engels provided finance
    • British Library provided Research Facilities
  • Dialectical materialism
    • Aimed to create a Universal Theory of Human Society to complement Darwin’s Natural Theory of Evolution
  • Mixture of ideas
    • Materialist History
      • Feuerbach
    • Class Struggle
    • Labour Theory of Value
      • Saint-Simon
      • Adam Smith
    • Dialectical Progress
      • Hegel
  • Intellectualy dismissed
    • Despite scientific rigour
  • Emotionally Devastating
    • Quasi-religion for the dispossessed