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Class Notes On The Main Characters from the Race for the Double Helix Slides created by Honors Genetics Classes. James D. Watson. April 6, 1928 – Nationality: English, Scottish, Irish. Educational Background.

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Class Notes On The Main Characters from the Race for the Double Helix

Slides created by Honors Genetics Classes

james d watson
James D. Watson

April 6, 1928 –

Nationality: English, Scottish, Irish

educational background
Educational Background
  • As a boy James Watson spent eight years at Horace Mann Grammar school in Chicago, and two years at South Shore High School
  • In the summer of 1943, James received a scholarship to the University of Chicago
  • James received a B.Sc and a Ph.D in Zoology from Indiana University
  • In 1950, James spent a year in Copenhagen, as a member of the National Research Council
  • He began work at the Cavendish laboratory in October of 1952
  • For two years Waston attended the California Institute of Technology as a Senior Research Fellow in Biology
  • In 1955 Watson returned to Cavendish and worked with crick, publishing several papers on the principals of virus construction
  • In 1956 Watson began working at Harvard, and is still involved there
personal life
Personal Life
  • James Watson was born on April 6, 1928 in Chicago, the city where he lived for the beginning of his life
  • Watson had a deep interest in bird watching and he did so throughout most of his life
  • Watson’s interest in bird watching lead to an even deeper interest in understanding genetics
  • James married former Elizabeth Lewis and had two sons, named Rufus and Duncan
  • Watson’s recreational activities were walking and bird watching, both which he still enjoys doing
research focus
Research Focus
  • First effort in constructing DNA model in 1951 (was unsatisfactory)
  • Second effort based upon experimental evidence of the nucleic acid literature which resulted in the proposal of complementary double helical configuration
  • At the same time, Watson was investigating the structure of TMV(a virus), using X-ray diffraction techniques. The purpose of this was to determine if its sub-units were helically arranged
  • Watson and Crick suggested that the model was made of two chains of nucleotides, each in a helix, but biparallel. Matching base pairs interlocked in the middle of the double helix to keep the distance between the chain constant
  • Watson worked on the Human Genome Project from 1988 to 1992
  • Then he continued his research on Cold Springs Harbor before becoming the head of the institution in 1994
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Francis Harry Compton crick

Born on June 8th, 1916, at Northampton, England

Oldest child of Harry Crick and Annie Elizabeth Wilkins.

He has one brother, A.F. Crick, who is a doctor in New Zealand.

During the war he worked as a scientist for the British Admiralty, mainly in connection with magnetic and acoustic mines. He left the Admiralty in 1947 to study biology.

background continued
Background Continued

Crick was forced to stop because of the war in 1939. He began working for the British Admiralty with magnetic and acoustic mines. In 1947, he left to study Biology.

scientific characteristics
Scientific Characteristics
  • Watson is wifty. Although he is very dedicated to finding the structure of the model of DNA his work didn’t compare to that of Rosalind Frank’s. Watson “went around” with crick and collected information to deduce the final structure of DNA
  • Watson enjoyed his job and felt joy in doing his experiments, but he also enjoyed having a good time at social gatherings and such.
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Francis Harry Compton Crick

  • Thanks to financial help by his family and a studentship from the Medical Research Council, Crick began working in Strangeways Research Laboratory. Shortly after he joined the Medical Research Council Unit and studied molecular biology. He eventually obtained a Ph.D in 1954 after his studies with polypeptides and proteins. In 1947, Crick knew no biology, no organic chemistry, and practically no crystallography, so much of the next years was spent learning these subjects. Throughout the next few years, Crick worked with W. Cochran and V. Vand, figuring out the general theory of x-ray diffraction of the helix as he grew more knowledgeable in these fields.
educational background14
Educational Background

Francis Harry Compton Crick was educated at Northampton Grammer School and Mill Hill School, London. He furthered his education on physics at University College, London, where he obtained a B.Sc. In 1937. He began doing research for a Ph.D. under Prof E. N. da C. Andrade.

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Because of his education, experience, and hard work, Francis Harry Compton Crick was able to be apart of a team who helped discover one of the largest mysteries of life. That discovery was DNA.

Adenine

Cytosine

Guanine

Thymine

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REASEARCH FOCUS

  • Crick began working at Cambridge learning Biology, organic chemistry, and x-ray diffraction technology.
  • He was investigating the structure of proteins.
  • When Crick and Watson joined each other they began to make models of DNA based on previous research and they used Franklins x-ray diffraction technology.
  • Crick eventually created a correct model for DNA along with Watson and was awarded the Nobel prize in 1962.
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INFLUENCES

  • A critical influence in Crick’s career was his friendship with J.D Watson, which lead to the proposal of the double helical structure for DNA and the general theory for the structure of viruses. Crick has also collaborated with many scientists such as A. Rich , S. Brenner, and D.R. Davies on his advances in the field of genetic code, structure of polyadenylic acid, and other elements of biochemistry helping to shape and perfect his scientific characteristics.
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The Scientific Characteristics of Francis Crick

  • Crick’s original interest lied in Physics, which he studied at University College in London, working towards his masters degree. His studies were interrupted by the outbreak of the war in 1939.
  • During the the war, Crick worked as a scientist for the British Admiralty, mainly in connection wit magnetic and acoustic mines. In 1947, however, he left the Admiralty to study biology.
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In 1941 she graduated from Cambridge

Then she started working on her doctorate. Her focus was on charcoal and coal, and how to use them efficiently.

She published five papers on the subject and had her PhD before she was 26 years old.

rosalind franklin
Rosalind Franklin

Satisfaction doesn’t come from knowing the solution. It comes from knowing why it’s the solution.

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Rosalind’s Structure of DNA

  • Form B vs. Form A
  • “Wet vs. Dry”
  • Where are the phosphates located?
  • Helix or no helix?
coal a valuable natural resource
Coal: A Valuable Natural Resource
  • Resource management information
  • “High-strength carbon fibers”
  • Energy production with the help of graphite
  • Classification system
structural virology
Structural Virology
  • Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  • X-ray diffraction contribution to immunology
  • Polio virus
x ray diffraction
X-Ray Diffraction

What is X-Ray Diffraction?

“The most beautiful X-ray photographs of any substance ever taken” (J.D. Bernal)

education

Education

The all girls’ school, that she attended in London, taught her chemistry and physics. At the age of 15 she decided she wanted to be a scientist.

In 1938 she passed the examination for Cambridge University.

Her father refused to pay because he didn’t approve of university education for women.

Her mother and aunt stepped in and they said they would pay for it.

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1958
  • Rosalind found out that she had ovarian cancer and continued to work.
  • She went through three operations and experimental chemotherapy.
  • She had one remission that lasted 10 months.
  • She worked up until a few weeks before her death at the age of 37.
maurice wilkins

Maurice Wilkins

Born on December 15, 1916

Nationality: New Zealand, British, and Irish

personal life29
Personal Life

Noble Prize Winners, December 1962

Maurice Wilkins, Max Perutz, Francias Crick, John Steinbeck, James Watson, and John Kendrew

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Maurice Hugh Fredrick Wilkins was born at Pongaroa, New Zealand on December 15th, 1916 after his parents left Ireland. His father, Edgar Henry Wilkins was a doctor in the School Medical Service and was very interested in research but had little opportunity for it.

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Wilkins was elected F.R.S. in 1959, given the Albert Lasker Award with Watson and Crick by the American Public Health Association in 1960, and made Companion of the British Empire in 1962.

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He married Patricia Ann Chidgey in 1959 and they have two children. They have a daughter named Sarah, and a son George. He finds recreation in collecting sculptures and in gardening.

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Maurice Wilkins

Educational Background

-At the age of 6 he was brought to England and educated at King Edwards school in Birmingham.

-He studied Physics at St. John’s College and received his degree in 1938.

-Then he went to Birmingham University and was research assistant to J.T. Randall in the Physics Department. Where they studied the luminescence of solids. In 1940 he obtained a Ph.D.

-In 1945 he was a lecturer in physics at St. Andrews’ University, Scotland, where J.T. Randall was organizing biophysical studies.

-In 1946 he went to King’s College where he studied the orientation of purines and pyrimidines.

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Research Focus Of Maurice Wilkins

1938-Physics degree from St. John’s College, Cambridge

1940-Obtained Ph.D, thesis on a study of thermal stability of trapped electrons in phosphors, and on the theory of phosphoresence-Applied this to war based problems like improving cathode ray tube screens for radar

1943-Manhattan Project-American wartime nuclear physics project-Research led to completion of nuclear weapons, dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, leading Wilkins to become a strong opponent of them

1945-Had spent 7 years in physics, and decided to begin biophysics, a new and appealing concept to Wilkins

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Research Focus Of Maurice Wilkins

1946-Member of new Medical Research Council Biophysics Research Unit at King’s College, London-First studied genetic effects of ultrasonics-then moved on to development of reflecting microscopes for UV micro-spectrophotometry of nucleic acids in cells-To name a few others-UV dichroism of oriented specimens, arrangement of virus particles of TMV, dry mass in cells with interference microscopes, and X-ray diffraction studies of DNA and sperm heads-Led tofiguring out molecular structure of DNA, establishing the correct Watson-Crick DNA structure

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Research Focus Of Maurice Wilkins

1950-Produced first images of DNA

1953-Using a 1952 X-ray diffraction photo from Wilkins and Franklin, Watson and Crick built the correct and precise model of DNA

1962-The Nobel Prize was given to Watson, Wilkins, and Crick, for Physiology and Medicine because of their discoveries

1997-Wrote book titled Crick, Watson, and DNA, which explained the tension in the relationship between he and Franklin-he wasn’t sure how to act with a woman in his laboratory- when they first met he assumed she was his assistant-Said lab was very abnormal

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Scientific Characteristics

“The DNA Enabler”

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Studied Physics at St. John’s College

  • (PhD in 1940; thesis: Thermal Stability of trapped electronsin phosphors, and the theory of phosphorescence)
  • applied knowledge to war time problems (improvement of cathode ray tube screens for radar)
  • Worked on the Manhattan Project (now opposes nuclear weapons)
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Changed emphasis to BIOPHYSICS

  • 1946- worked at Kings College, London as a member on the staff of the newly formed Medical Research Council Biophysics Research Unit
  • Studied:

-X-Ray Crystallography (applied to biology)

-Genetic effects of ultrasonics

-development of reflecting microscopes for ultraviolet microspectrophotometry (nucleic acids in cells)

-DOUBLE HELIX (orientation of purines and pyrimidines in virus)