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Introduction to the Social Implications of Computing. Katie Cheng. Overview. Introduction to the Social Implications of Computing Social Implications of Networked Communications Growth of, Control of and Access to the Internet The Internet and Social Engineering

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  • Introduction to the Social Implications of Computing
  • Social Implications of Networked Communications
  • Growth of, Control of and Access to the Internet
  • The Internet and Social Engineering
  • Gender Related Issues of Computing
  • Computer Crime
  • Computer Crime Prevention
  • 1974 Xerox Alto – first work station with built-in mouse. Menus and Icons. LAN capabilities.
  • 1969 ARPANET commissioned by DoD
  • 1990 Hyper Text Markup Language developed by Tim Berners-Lee. Allowed the internet to expand into the World Wide Web using Uniform Resource Locator and HyperText Transfer Protocol.
  • 1996 Internet was mainstream. AOL, AT&T WorldNet
what is a computer
What is a Computer?
  • com·put·er: a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data
  • The computer is a tool.
  • A tool is only as smart as it’s user.
positive impact of computers
Positive Impact of Computers
  • Computers take over mundane tasks
  • Higher productivity
  • Credit Cards, Space Travel, Medical Research
  • New Jobs created from New Technology
  • Global Communication
  • Information Highway
negative impact of computers
Negative Impact of Computers
  • Fast paced business, More Stress.
  • Creates skilled jobs only.
  • Dependency on Computers.
  • Lack of more intimate social interaction.
  • Health Issues.
  • Early email was developed as an application on the ARPANET for complex mixture of Cold War military.
  • The idea of using the ARPANET as a medium for human communication was not widely recognized until the creation of network email in 1971.
  • In 1984, domain name server developed and the number of hosts on Internet breaks 1000.
  • In 1988, the number of Internet hosts breaks 100,000 and first commercial electronic mail carriers appeared on the Internet: MCI Mail and Compuserve.
instant messenger
Instant Messenger
  • “MSN Messenger you can chat online instantly—in real time—with friends, family and colleagues. It's faster than e-mail, more discreet than a phone call, and best of all—it's FREE!*”
  • people are able to communicate synchronously on different "channels" from disparate locations.
  • there are many more features in IM such as file sharing, weather report, and stock alert, etc.
  • 84% of US enterprises that have IM usage
  • Microsoft sees IM as the bridge to a communication system of the future with highly integrated voice, video, text, presence, and applications.
  • Lotus recently announced that it would be tightly integrating its Sametime IM application with its Websphere server.
psychological effect
Psychological Effect
  • Socially anonymous
    • public identity are not revealed immediately.
    • invent an alternate version of one’s self or someone else.
    • more comfortable.
    • social interaction and sometimes intimacy
  • Socially insensible
    • rude by using improper and abusive languages
    • falling in love through Internet forums, chat room, instant messages and emails.
online language
Online Language
  • express affective and speedy conversation
  • don’t follow correct grammars or spelling.
    • “ROFL”
    • “btw”
    • add repeated exclamation points and question marks to add affective emphasis
  • Emotion icons or “smileys” serves facial expression over the Internet
    • T_T
    • :-)
future applications
Future Applications
  • VoIP (voice over Internet protocol )
    • 500,000 residential users just in the US
    • 16.5 million by 2008
    • cheaper than traditional kind and it’s packed with new features
  • IP-TV
    • offering a low-cost Internet alternative to traditional TiVo.
    • Internet-style interactivity and flexibility to our TV set.
history of the internet
History of the Internet
  • J.C.R Licklider – “Galactic Network” Concept
  • Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA)
  • Pursuit of technological advancement, mainly for military use
  • ARPANET and packet switching
growth of the internet
Growth of the Internet
  • Growth of internet doubled every year since 1996
  • Usage of internet spans from academics to business to recreation.
  • HTML and HTTP
access to the internet
Access to the Internet
  • Dialup connection
  • Faster data transmission speeds now due to new technologies
    • Cable, DSL, Satellite
    • Advantages and disadvantages
  • Wi-fi allows wireless connectivity to the Internet
    • Available in hotels, cafes and airports, etc…
control of the internet
Control of the Internet
  • Preventative measures
    • Laws and licenses
    • Software and hardware manipulation
  • Governmental censorship of information
  • Programs that monitor internet usage
    • Set site viewing restrictions
      • Adult content
      • Graphic Violence
    • NetNanny, CyberPatrol, CyberSitter
future of the internet
Future of the Internet
  • Internet2
    • Partnership between corporations, universities, and government agencies
    • Interactive television, video conferencing, movies on demand
  • Departure from PC internet connection
    • Cellular phones and pagers
the internet and social engineering

The Internet and Social Engineering

“Users are the weakest link”

Steve Dittmar

what is it
What is It?
  • Social Engineering
    • the practice of conning people into revealing sensitive data on a computer system, often on the Internet
how is it done
How Is It Done?
  • E-mail
    • Send malicious attachments that then spam
  • Phishing
    • Convince a user that you are an administrator asking for account passwords or credit card information
  • Spyware
    • Software that executes hidden background tasks
past instances of it
Past Instances Of It
  • Kevin Mitnick
    • Convicted five times; suspected of more
    • Broke into FBI, SCO, Pentagon, more…
  • Fake Tsunami Relief Orgs.
    • At least 170 potentially fraudulent Web sites soliciting donations tsunami victims have turned up
  • PayPal Phishing
    • Email claiming unusual activity in your account asks for you to click a link and fill out/verify account information
how to protect yourself
How To Protect Yourself
  • Five Levels
    • Foundation: Have a security policy for the standards and level of security on a network
    • Parameter: Security awareness training for all users
    • Fortress: Resistance training for key personnel
    • Persistence: On going reminders
    • Gotcha: Social Engineering Land Mines (SLEM)
    • Offensive: Incident response; a plan of action

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gender related issues of computing26
Gender Related Issues of Computing

Under-representation of Women in computing

Few women enter the Computer Science program, but why?

Growing gender gap in the computing field

Future outlooks of the composition in the work force

under representation of women in computing past and current
Under-representation of Women in Computing- past and current
  • The number of men earning degrees in CS surpasses those earned by women throughout the 1970s, 1980s,and early 1990s.

(US Department of Education 1994)

  • The figures have fallen over the last 15 years.
  • Tendency to drop out of academia
  • Few have made it into teaching

Figure1. Female% of Intended CS Majors

Source: University of Virginia

computing research association figures
Computing Research Association Figures.

Source: CRA – Taulbee Trends: Women Students & Faculty

why so few women in computing
Why So Few Women in Computing?
  • Computing is a male-stereotype activity
  • Lack of support
    • Family support
    • Teacher support
    • Peer support
  • Lack of self-confidence
  • Lose interest to get advance
  • Lack of female role models
  • Guys have more initial experience in computer
growing gender gap
Growing Gender Gap?
  • Gender gap is growing in academia and industry
  • Under-representation further discourage women from entering and staying with it.
  • Gender gap will continue to grow.
  • Yet jobs in computing are expected to grow through 2012. (U.S. Department of Labor)
  • Effective intervention -> more women will participate
computer crime

Computer Crime

“The act must be one that can be carried out only through the use of computer technology.” –Herman T. Tavini

Speaker: Lisa Punzo

where did it start
Where did it start?
  • The Trojan Horse – 1972
  • First Worm – 1982
  • First Virus - 1983
three types of computer crime
Three Types of Computer Crime
  • Software Piracy
  • Electronic Break-ins
  • Computer Sabotage
  • Spam?
economic impact
Economic Impact
  • $141,496,560 lost to computer crime in 2004.
  • Virus takes top billing in 2004.
  • Cost of security.
  • $10 billion in lost productivity due to Spam.
  • Cost
  • Reports
  • Technology

Point to Ponder:

  • What about the world of virtual crime?
computer crime prevention37
Computer Crime Prevention
  • I. Introduction
  • Computer crime prevention has been a big topic since 2001.
  • Different types of computer crimes include:
    • Hacking – gaining unauthorized access to computer, network, et cetera.
    • Virus – programs attaching to files; thus, making the computer “sick.”
    • Spyware/Spam – annoying advertisements and junk e-mails.
    • Piracy – Sharing and downloading of illegal software and media files.
computer crime prevention38
Computer Crime Prevention
  • II. History
  • Computer crimes have started since the earliest networks were built.
  • Earliest history of viruses were around 1987.
    • Basit & Amjad created the Brain virus in 1987.
    • First anti-virus available in 1988.
    • Firewalls became a second option to the reality of viruses.
    • First security firewalls were IP routers with filtering capabilities, used in the early ’90s.
computer crime prevention39
Computer Crime Prevention
  • III. Methods
  • It is impossible to stop every method of attack; technology changes rapidly.
  • Here are some of the more common methods:
    • Firewall – packet, circuit and application filtering. Data encryption recently included provides: authentication, confidentiality and integrity.
    • Antivirus software – on-access and on-demand detection.
    • Spyware/Spam – Ad-aware, “Can-Spam” bill, the Spy Act.
    • Piracy – RIAA lawsuits, only way currently to combat problem.
computer crime prevention40
Computer Crime Prevention
  • IV. Future & Conclusion
  • Total computer crime prevention is impossible.
  • The future of computer crime prevention is preventing international crimes and determining the jurisdiction of the crimes.
  • Prevention of crimes through newer mediums like wireless.
  • Conference held in France in 2004, Council of Europe’s Cybercrime convention. US did not sign treaty.
  • In 2002, US government issued the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace.
  • Laws will be passed, when will it infringe on individual rights?