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Identification Of ADS-B User Benefits To Incentivize GA Equipage Fabrice Kunzi kunzi@mit.edu Advisor: R. John Hansman rjhans@mit.edu CGAR Annual Meeting June 9th - 11th 2009 Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) Transmitter Receiver MOPS/MASPS etc. ADS-B Out and In

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identification of ads b user benefits to incentivize ga equipage

Identification Of ADS-B User Benefits To Incentivize GA Equipage

Fabrice Kunzi

kunzi@mit.edu

Advisor: R. John Hansman

rjhans@mit.edu

CGAR Annual Meeting

June 9th - 11th 2009

automatic dependent surveillance broadcast ads b
Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B)
  • Transmitter
  • Receiver
  • MOPS/MASPS
  • etc.

ADS-B Out and In

Aircraft Capability/Avionics Equipage

ADS-B Out:

Position and intent broadcast to ground or other aircraft

ADS-B In:

Information transmitted from ground or other aircraft to aircraft

Operating Procedures

ADS-B Out

ADS-B In

ADS-B Out

Ground Infrastructure/ATC Integration

  • Antennae
  • Controller Display
  • Data Fusion
  • etc.

ATC Integration

performance advantages of ads b
Performance Advantages of ADS-B
  • Higher update rate than radar
  • Higher Velocity Accuracy
    • Radar uses an Alpha/Beta Tracker
    • ADS-B transmits velocity from navigation source
  • Potentially higher position accuracy
    • Radar has a finite beam width which increases with distance from dish
    • ADS-B transmits position as determined by the navigation source
  • ADS-B provides Heading information
  • ADS-B messages can contain intent information
  • Allows for more even task distribution
    • Self – Separation
    • Crossing Applications
    • Other ATC operations
  • Data Transmission such as Weather and Traffic Information (FIS-B, TIS-B, etc)
  • Ground Infrastructure is cheaper
worldwide ads b implementation
Worldwide ADS-B Implementation

Iceland

Russia

Canada

Europe

USA

Japan

China

Indonesia & Singapore

India

Implemented

Committed

Australia & New Zealand

Expected

S. Africa

Evaluated

http://www.outline-world-map.com/map-images-original/outline-blank-transparent-world-map-b1b.png

challenges to implementation
Challenges to implementation
  • FAA committed to nationwide ADS-B ground coverage by 2013
  • Many ADS-B benefits require a minimum level of airborne equipage
    • ADS-B Out mandate for 2020 in the US (2015 in Europe)
    • The mandate is a very slow process
    • Benefit needs to outweigh cost for voluntary equipage
    • Early equipage = early benefit
  • Identify ways to begin using ADS-B that have benefit such that users want ADS-B
  • Determine where the FAA can accelerate equipage by strategically investing in specific operations/benefit areas
motivation
Motivation

Capabilities

Applications

Aggregate Cost/Benefits

stk1

stk2

stk3

b1(t)

b2(t)

GA (e.g.)

Application 1

Application 2

….

Application x

Aircraft Equipage

Level of Benefit/Cost

b3(t)

Significant

benefits

Operating Procedures

Some/Indirect

stk1

stk2

stk3

None/ Insignificant

ATC Ground Infrastructure

c1(t)

c2(t)

c3(t)

costs

Adapted from: Dr. Karen Marais & Prof. Annalisa Weigel (MIT) “ Encouraging and Ensuring Successful Technology Transition in Civil Aviation”

methodology for user benefit identification
Methodology for User Benefit Identification
  • MIT/ICAT designed the survey with direct input from the FAA and AOPA
  • Survey was advertized online and open from June 14 and July 31, 2007
    • AirlineCrew.net, PPRuNe.org, Piperowner.org, AOPA.org, AviationForum.org
    • Participants were asked to rank applications using the following levels:
      • No Benefit
      • Some Benefits
      • Significant Benefit
      • N/A (not applicable to this type of operation)
    • A background section captured demographics
  • Demographics
    • Private Pilots (44%)
    • Commercial Pilots (34%)
    • Air Transportation Pilots (21%)
    • Other (1%)
motivation9
Motivation

Capabilities

Applications

Aggregate Cost/Benefits

GA

Air Transp.

etc.

b1(t)

b2(t)

Application 1

Application 2

….

Application x

Aircraft Equipage

Level of Benefit/Cost

b3(t)

Significant

benefits

Operating Procedures

Some/Indirect

GA

Air Transp.

etc.

None/ Insignificant

ATC Ground Infrastructure

c1(t)

c2(t)

c3(t)

costs

Adapted from: Dr. Karen Marais & Prof. Annalisa Weigel (MIT) “ Encouraging and Ensuring Successful Technology Transition in Civil Aviation”

radar like separation in non radar airspace
Radar Like Separation in Non-Radar Airspace
  • Over half of survey participants spend more than 10% of their time in Non-Radar Airspace
    • Below existing radar coverage
  • One-In-One-Out Issue
    • Lack radar coverage significantly affects IFR airport acceptance rate at non-towered airport
    • Typically 4 aircraft per hour
    • User Benefit comes from a reduction in holding time
one in one out current situation
One-In-One-Out:Current Situation
  • Only one IFR aircraft is allowed to enter the non-radar airspace
    • Once the IFR flight plan is canceled, the next aircraft may enter
    • Cancellations can be via radio communications, cell phone or outside observation

Radar Surveilled

Holding Pattern

Procedural Airspace

One Aircraft at a time

Non-Radar Airspace

Approach Path

Non-towered airport

Final Approach Fix

12

one in one out stage i user benefit from increased coverage
One-In-One-Out:Stage I: User Benefit from Increased Coverage
  • Adding ADS-B surveillance allows aircraft to hold at a lower altitude
  • Benefit comes from a reduced distance between the airport and the holding pattern
    • Less time spent in holding
  • Communication becomes restriction
  • Benefit is constrained to very selected locations
    • Non-Towered Airport
    • Relatively High Radar Ceiling

Radar/ADS-B Surveilled

Holding Pattern

Procedural Airspace

One Aircraft at a time

ADS-B Surveilled

Approach Path

Non-towered airport

Final Approach Fix

13

13

one in one out stage ii user benefit from ads b procedures
One-In-One-Out:Stage II: User Benefit from ADS-B Procedures
  • Using data provided by the ADS-B message, a safe landing might be detectable before the pilot cancels his IFR flight plan
    • Holding aircraft can be released sooner
  • Benefit comes from reducing time until IFR cancellation
  • Safe departures could be detected sooner also
  • To get large amounts of user benefits this step is required

Radar/ADS-B Surveilled

Holding Pattern

ADS-B Surveilled

Approach Path

Non-towered airport

Final Approach Fix

14

14

required steps to create such procedures
Required Steps To Create Such Procedures
  • Ongoing process; major issues include:
  • Stage I:
    • Achieve Radar Equivalency for ADS-B
    • Address wording changes required for existing procedure documentation (7110.65, etc)
    • Address issues arising from mixed equipage
    • Ways for Radar and ADS-B data merging need to be identified
  • Stage II:
    • Concept of Operations (CONOPS) needs to be written
    • Full Safety Analysis (OHA) needs to be conducted
    • Create guidelines for procedural design
    • Test procedure (i. e. Flight Test)
    • Publish procedure and adjust existing literature
    • Train controllers and pilots
next steps
Next Steps
  • Continue to identify Applications with highest GA benefit
    • Previous Work
    • CGAR
  • Understand processes required to develop procedures for Stage I & Stage II (for One In One Out) and identify the requirements to do so
  • Evaluate procedural issues for other high value ADS-B applications to create these applications
feedback of benefit
Feedback of Benefit

Operating

Procedures

stk3

stk1

stk2

b1(t)

b2(t)

b3(t)

Aircraft Capability/

Equipage

ADS-B Applications

Benefit

procedure changes
Procedure Changes
  • First category of procedure change needs adoption of existing procedures
    • Needs equivalency of ADS-B surveillance to radar surveillance
    • Benefit only found in areas with very high radar floors (above final approach fix)
  • Second category of procedure change is the creation of new, ADS-B specific procedures
    • Use ADS-B specific advantages
    • ADS-B message has information such as heading, speed, etc.
    • Recognition of patterns could substitute human observation
current status
Current Status

Where are the Procedures/ATC?

reference
Reference
  • http://www.outline-world-map.com/map-images-original/outline-blank-transparent-world-map-b1b.png