Blood and blood products Vaginal secretions Semen Amniotic fluid Unfixed tissues Cerebrospinal, synovial, pleural, pericardial and peritoneal fluids Cell cultures Saliva Urine Tears Sputum Feces Vomit Other excretions and secretions Human Source Material Second column not covered in Bloodborne Pathogen Standard, possibly not occupationally related.
Human Source Material • May transmit infectious agents • Imperfect knowledge of infectious status • Incubation period (asymptomatic) • No test for every pathogen • Most tissues and body fluids • Bloodborne Pathogens (HBV, HCV, HIV, HTLV-1) • Pathogens causing Malaria, Syphilis, Babesiosis, Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, Arboviral infections, Relapsing fever, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease and viral hemorrhagic fever
Cell Culture Risks • Contaminating pathogenic agents • natural (often zoonotic) or inadvertent • ~20 LAIs from primary cultures in last 30 years • e.g., Herpes B (CHV-1), prions • Oncogenic potential • could be oncogene or oncogenic agent • e.g., HPV-18, MPMV genomes in HeLa cells • Unexpected (adventitious) agents • e.g., SIV, STLV, SV5 in primate cells, HHV-8 in BCBL-1 cells • Hazardous chemicals added to culture medium
Cell Culture under Bloodborne Pathogen Standard • ABSA requested OSHA’s interpretation in 1994: • Do human cell cultures fall under the Bloodborne Pathogen (BBP) Standard? • Response: • All primary human cell cultures (explants) and subsequent in vitro passages fall under the BBP Standard • To be exempted from the BBP requirements, cell strains and lines must undergo testing and characterization (documented) for bloodborne pathogens (not just HBV, HCV and HIV)
Cell Culture Safety • Extend Universal/Standard Precautions to all human and animal cell cultures • Consider working at BSL 2 (most work there already to protect the cell cultures) • Handle all cultures in a biosafety cabinet • If human origin and not demonstrated to be free of human bloodborne pathogens, adhere to requirements of the BBP Standard • Wear PPE appropriate to human source material
Human Source Materials May be regulated Can be biohazardous Use Universal Precautions at all times Visible blood means increased risk Don’t consider “normal” source Human and Non-human Primate Cell Cultures Treat human cultures as possible biohazards Beware of non-human primate cells Beware of CNS, corneal, pituitary cells Some cells may be OK at BSL 1 Summary