hazardous materials n.
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Hazardous Materials

Hazardous Materials

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Hazardous Materials

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  1. Hazardous Materials Subpart H

  2. Subpart H Standards • 1910.101 Compressed Gases • 1910.102 Acetylene • 1910.103 Hydrogen • 1910.104 Oxygen • 1910.105 Nitrous Oxide • 1910.106 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

  3. Subpart H Standards • 1910.107 Spray Finishing using Flammable and Combustible Materials • 1910.108 Dip Tanks containing Flammable and Combustible Liquids • 1910.109 Explosives and Blasting Agents

  4. Subpart H Standards • 1910.110 Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases • 1910.111 Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia • 1910.119 Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals • 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response

  5. Subpart H Standards • 1910.123 Dipping and coating operations: Coverage and Definitions • 1910.124 General Requirements for Dipping and Coating Operations

  6. Subpart H Standards • 1910.125 Additional Requirements for Dipping and Coating Operations that use Flammable or Combustible Liquids • 1910.126 Additional Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations

  7. Definitions • Hazardous Chemical • Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA) term that denotes any chemical that would be a risk to employees if exposed in the work place

  8. Definition • Highly Hazardous Chemical • OSHA term that denotes any chemical that would posses toxic, reactive, flammable or explosive properties

  9. Flammable and Combustible Liquids 1910.106

  10. Definitions • Aerosol • Aerosol shall mean a material which is dispensed from its container as a mist, spray, or foam by a propellant under pressure

  11. Definitions • Approved • Approved shall mean an approved or listed by a national recognized testing laboratory • Such as: • Underwriters Laboratories (UL) or • Factory Mutual (FM)

  12. Definitions • Boiling Point • Boiling point shall mean the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia). The pressure is equivalent to 760 millimeters of mercury (760 mm Hg) • Liquid changes into a vapor

  13. Definitions • Boiling Point • At temperatures above the boiling, the pressure of the atmosphere can no longer hold the liquid in the liquid state and bubbles begin to form. • The lower the boiling point, the greater the vapor pressure at normal ambient temperatures and consequently the greater the risk.

  14. Definitions • Container • Container shall mean any can, barrel, or drum

  15. Definitions • Closed Container • Closed container shall mean a container so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid or vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures

  16. Definitions • Fire Area • Fire area shall mean an area of a building separated from the remainder of the building by construction having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour and having all communicating openings properly protected by an assembly having a fire resistance rating of at least one hour.

  17. Definitions • Flash Point • Flash point means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. The flash point is normally an indication of susceptibility to ignition.

  18. Definitions • Combustible Liquid • Combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at above 100°F (37.8 °C). • Combustible liquids are divided into two classes: • Class II • Class III

  19. Definitions • Class II Liquids • Class II liquids shall include those with a flash point at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and below 140°F (60°C)

  20. Definitions • Class III Liquids • Class III liquids shall include those with flash points at or above 140°F (60°C). • Class III are divided into two classes: • Class IIIA • Class IIIB

  21. Definitions • Class IIIA Liquids • Class III liquids shall include those with flash points at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93.3°C)

  22. Definitions • Class IIIB Liquids • Class IIIB liquids shall include those with a flash point at or above 200°F (93.3°C). • This section does not regulate Class IIIB liquids.

  23. Definitions • NOTE: • When a combustible liquid is heated to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flash point, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for the next lower class of liquids

  24. Definitions • Flammable Liquid • Flammable liquid means any liquid having a flash point below 100 °F (37.8 °C) • Flammable liquids shall be known as Class I liquids

  25. Definitions • Class I liquids are divided into three classes: • Class 1A • Class 1B • Class 1C

  26. Definitions • Class 1A • Class 1A shall include liquids having flash points below 73 °F (22.8°C) and having a boiling point below 100 °F (37.8°C) • Examples: Ethyl Ether, Isopropyl Chloride, Pentane

  27. Definitions • Class 1B Liquids • Class 1B shall include liquids having flash points below 73°F (22.8°C) and having a boiling point at or above 100°F (37.8°C) • Example: Acetone, Gasoline, Toluene

  28. Definitions • Class 1C • Class 1C shall include liquids having flash points at at or above 73°F (22.8°C) and below 100°F (37.8°C) • Examples: Amyl Alcohol, Naphtha, Xylene

  29. Flash Point 200°F Combustible Flash Point > 100°F IIIA 140°F II 100°F IC Flammable Flash Point < 100°F 73°F IA IB 100°F Boiling Point

  30. Definitions • Portable Tank • Portable tank shall mean a closed container having a liquid capacity over 60 U.S. gallons and not intended for fixed installation

  31. Definitions • Safety Can • Safety can means an approved container, of not more than 5 gallons capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subject to fire exposure

  32. Definitions • Vapor Pressure • Vapor Pressure is a measure of a liquid’s propensity to evaporate. • The higher the vapor pressure, the more volatile the liquid and, thus, the more readily the liquid gives off vapors

  33. Flammable (Explosive) Limits • Flammable Range • The range of a combustible vapor or gas-air mixture between the upper and lower flammable limits. • Also, known as the “explosive range.”

  34. Flammable (Explosive) Limits • Lower Flammable Limit • The lowest concentration at which a combustible gas forms a flammable mixture. • Below the LFL there is too little combustible fuel to sustain a flame. • Also, known as “Lower Explosive Limit or LEL.”

  35. Flammable (Explosive) Limits • Upper Flammable Limit • The highest concentration at which a combustible gas forms a flammable mixture. • Above the UFL there is too little oxygen to sustain a flame. Better known as “too rich” to burn. • Also, known as “Upper Explosive Limit or UEL.”

  36. Flammable (Explosive) Limits • HazardousMaterialLFLUFL • Butane 1.9 8.5 • Ethylene Oxide 3.0 100.0 • Gasoline 1.4 7.6 • Hydrogen 4.0 75.0 • Isopropyl Alcohol 2.0 12.7 • Propane 2.1 9.5

  37. Flammable and Combustible Liquids

  38. Introduction • The two primary hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids are explosion and fire • Safe handling and storage of flammable liquids requires the use of approved equipment and practices per OSHA standards

  39. Classes of Some Flammable Liquids Common Name Flash Point (oF) Ethyl Ether -49 Gasoline -45 Methyl Ethyl Ketone 21 Toluene 40 Xylene 81-115 Turpentine 95 CLASS IA CLASS IB CLASS IC

  40. Program Components A good plan for safe use of flammable and combustible liquids contains at least these components: • Control of ignition sources • Proper storage • Fire control • Safe handling

  41. Sources of Ignition Must take adequate precautions to prevent ignition of flammable vapors. Some sources of ignition include: • Open flames • Smoking • Static electricity • Cutting and welding • Hot surfaces • Electrical and mechanical sparks • Lightning

  42. Static Electricity • Generated when a fluid flows through a pipe or from an opening into a tank • Main hazards are fire and explosion from sparks containing enough energy to ignite flammable vapors • Bonding or grounding of flammable liquid containers is necessary to prevent static electricity from causing a spark

  43. Industrial Plants – Grounding • Class I liquids shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected

  44. Bonding • Physically connect two conductive objects together with a bond wire to eliminate a difference in static charge potential between them • Must provide a bond wire between containers during flammable liquid filling operations, unless a metallic path between them is otherwise present

  45. Grounding • Eliminates a difference in static charge potential between conductive objects and ground • Although bonding will eliminate a difference in potential between objects, it will not eliminate a difference in potential between these objects and earth unless one of the objects is connected to earth with a ground wire

  46. Ventilation Always provide adequate ventilation to reduce the potential for ignition of flammable vapors.

  47. Storage Fundamentals • Identify incompatible chemicals – check the Material Safety Data Sheet • Isolate and separate incompatible materials • Isolate by storing in another area or room • Degree of isolation depends on quantities, chemical properties and packaging • Separate by storing in same area or room, but apart from each other

  48. Storage of Flammableand Combustible Liquids • Storage must not limit the use of exits, stairways, or areas normally used for the safe egress of people • In office occupancies: • Storage prohibited except that which is required for maintenance and operation of equipment • Storage must be in: • closed metal containers inside a storage cabinet, or • safety cans, or • an inside storage room Inside storage room

  49. Safety Cans for Storage and Transfer • Approved container of not more than 5 gallons capacity • Spring-closing lid and spout cover • Safely relieves internal pressure when exposed to fire

  50. Flame Arrester Screen • Prevents fire flashback into can contents • Double wire-mesh construction • Large surface area provides rapid dissipation of heat from fire so that vapor temperature inside can remains below ignition point