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FIVE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE. Informational ( to convey information ) Expressive ( to express emotions ) Directive ( to give orders, commands ) Aesthetic ( to create artistic effect ) Phatic ( to maintain social bonds ). Purr words. Democratic, freedom, human rights,

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five functions of language

FIVE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE

Informational (to convey information)

Expressive (to express emotions)

Directive (to give orders, commands)

Aesthetic (to create artistic effect)

Phatic (to maintain social bonds)

purr words

Purr words

Democratic,

freedom,

human rights,

fatherland,

equality.

e.g.Bush’s war against Iraq labelled as

“enduring fredom”

euphemism
Euphemism

( referring to something offensive or delicate, making it sound more pleasant)

  • Lavatory: privy,water-closet, toilet, restroom, comfort station.
  • Undeveloped countries:

Developing countries

Emergent nations

snarl words
Snarl words

(denigratory words)

  • Communist,
  • Fascist,
  • Nigger,
  • Yank,
  • jap,
  • red……
conceptual engineering
Conceptual engineering
  • Violence : because of its bad associations, any public justification of political activities which lead to physical force must maintain the thesis that “our actions are not violent”, so other words are used, such as:

force

military action

slide6
Directive language (directing or influencing the behaviour of others as in propaganda) capitalizes on the affective and associative power of words, with the result that conceptual meaning is manipulated.
sociolinguistics
Sociolinguistics
  • Ethnolinguistics
  • Anthropological linguistics
  • Sociological liguistics
  • Stylistics
  • Social psychology
sociolinguistics8
Sociolinguistics
  • It studies language’s structure changes in response to its different social functions.
  • Race
  • Nationality
  • Regional,social & polit. groups
  • Interactions of individuals within groups.
ethnolinguistics
Ethnolinguistics
  • It refers to the problems of ethnic groups.
  • It deals with the liguistic consequences of immigration.
slide10
Anthropological linguistics (studying primitive cultures).
  • Sociological linguistics (studying “more advanced” political political units).
stylistics
Stylistics
  • Distinctive linguistic characteristics of small social groups, literary expression of a community.
psycholinguistics
Psycholinguistics
  • Language acquisition in children.
  • Language pathology
  • Speech disability
  • Doctor-patient, or nurse-patient relationship
  • Business management (absence of effective communication between employers and staff lead to trouble).