Ethics research
1 / 23

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Ethics & Research. Communication Research Week 2 Myra Gurney. What is Ethics?.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - daniel_millan

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Ethics research l.jpg

Ethics & Research

Communication Research

Week 2

Myra Gurney

What is ethics l.jpg
What is Ethics?

  • Can be defined as a systematic attempt, through the use of reason, to make sense of our individual and social moral experience in such a way as to determine the rules which govern human conduct and the the values worth pursuing in life

  • A set of standards that regulate our behaviour

  • Can be socially and culturally determined

Communication Research Spring 2005

What is ethics3 l.jpg
What is Ethics?

  • Enables us to distinguish between what is acceptable and legitimate and what is not

  • The word ‘ethics’ comes from the Greek ethos meaning custom and character

  • An important aspect of any ethical system is the role of truth and lies

Communication Research Spring 2005

Types of ethics l.jpg
Types of Ethics

  • Normative – dictate what is morally correct behaviour.

  • Fundamental concern is the development and justification of systems of moral rules which guide conduct

  • Statements of ‘ought’

Communication Research Spring 2005

Types of ethics5 l.jpg
Types of Ethics

  • Relative – “Fire burns both in Hellas and in Persia; but men’s ideas of right or wrong vary from place to place.” … Aristotle’s Nichomanchean Ethics

  • Absolute – application of principles regardless of context or circumstances eg exercise of absolute power in politics – tyranny

Communication Research Spring 2005

Research ethics l.jpg
Research Ethics

  • All researchers, even students, have a responsibility to conduct ethical research

  • Participants in research studies should know and understand their rights and responsibilities

  • Ethical considerations are part of the design of the research project

Communication Research Spring 2005

The 10 point nuremburg code l.jpg
The 10 point Nuremburg Code

  • 1.Participation must be voluntary, and subjects should have the capacity to give consent. Further, subjects should be fully informed of the purposes, nature, and duration of the experiment.

  • 2. The research should yield results that are useful to society and that cannot be obtained in any other way.

Communication Research Spring 2005

The 10 point nuremburg code8 l.jpg
The 10 point Nuremburg Code

  • 3. The research should have a sound footing in animal research and be based on the natural history of the problem under study.

  • 4. Steps should be taken in the research to avoid unnecessary physical or psychological harm to the subjects.

  • 5. Research should not be conducted if there is reason to believe that death or disability will occur in the subjects.

Communication Research Spring 2005

The 10 point nuremburg code9 l.jpg
The 10 point Nuremburg Code

  • 6.The risk involved in the research should be proportional to the benefits to be obtained.

  • 7. Proper plans should be made and facilities provided to protect the subject from harm.

  • 8. Research should be conducted by highly qualified scientists only.

Communication Research Spring 2005

The 10 point nuremburg code10 l.jpg
The 10 point Nuremburg Code

  • 9. The subject should have the freedom to withdraw at any time if he or she has reached the conclusion that continuing in the experiment is not possible.

  • 10. The researcher must be prepared to discontinue the experiment if it becomes evident that continuing will be harmful to the subject.

Communication Research Spring 2005

Unethical research the willowbrook studies l.jpg
Unethical research – The Willowbrook Studies

  • 1963-66 at Willowbrook State School in New York for “mentally defective persons”

  • Children deliberately infected with hepatitis in order to understand the natural history of the disease and the effects of gamma globulin in preventing the disease

  • Defended on the grounds that the children would have caught it anyway – better under “controlled conditions”

Communication Research Spring 2005

Unethical research john b watson and little albert l.jpg
Unethical research – John B Watson and “Little Albert”

  • Famous psychological experiment to test the effects of classical conditioning

  • Little Albert was 11 months old

  • Introduced to a laboratory white rat of whom he initially had no fear

  • When the rat was later introduced, a scary stimulus (eg a loud noise) was “paired” with the original

  • Albert was later conditioned to fear anything white including a Santa Claus mask

Communication Research Spring 2005

Unethical research simulated rape field study l.jpg
Unethical research – Simulated Rape Field Study

  • Harari, Harari & White (1985) male participants alone or in groups were exposed to simulated rape (screaming woman grabbed by male assailant and dragged into bushes)

  • Measured yes or no to intervention by participants

  • Prior to intervention, participants debriefed

Communication Research Spring 2005

Simulated rape study problems l.jpg
Simulated Rape Study – problems

  • Should informed consent have been obtained? Post hoc informed consent?

  • Psychological Stress?

  • Unexpected reactions by participants, e.g. what if someone had a gun?

  • Should subjects be stopped and debriefed? What about those who didn’t stop? What should debriefing include?

Communication Research Spring 2005

The belmont principles l.jpg
The Belmont Principles

  • The primary task of the National Commission was to identify the ethical principles that would guide all research involving humans. The Belmont Report -- Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects was published in 1978.

  • The principles of The Belmont Report govern all research supported by the U.S. government today.

Communication Research Spring 2005

Current standards l.jpg
Current Standards


  • 1. Respect for Persons: This principle acknowledges the dignity and freedom of every person. It requires obtaining informed consent from research subjects (or their legally authorized representatives).

  • 2. Beneficence: This principle requires that researchers maximize benefits and minimize harms associated with research. Research-related risks must be reasonable in light of expected benefits

  • 3. Justice: This principle requires equitable selection and recruitment and fair treatment of research subjects.

Communication Research Spring 2005

The problem of deception l.jpg
The Problem of Deception

Deception interferes with a subjects’ right to be informed

  • Role-Playing

    • Research shows that informed and uninformed participants behave differently

  • Prior Consent

    • General consent to be uninformed

  • Debriefing

    • Inform participants about study (methods, purpose, results) including deception used

Communication Research Spring 2005

What is active deception l.jpg
What is active deception?

  • Misrepresenting the purpose

  • False statements about the identity of the researcher

  • False promises to the participant

  • Violations of promise of anonymity

  • Misleading statements about equipment and procedures

  • Use of pseudosubjects

Communication Research Spring 2005

What is active deception19 l.jpg
What is active deception?

  • False diagnoses and other reports

  • False interaction

  • Using placebos or secret administration of drugs

  • Misleading settings and behavior of the experimenter

Communication Research Spring 2005

Passive deception l.jpg
Passive Deception

  • Doing unrecognized conditioning

  • Provoking and secretly recording negative behavior of participants

  • Making concealed observations

  • Doing unrecognized participant observation

  • Using projective techniques and otherpersonality tests.

Communication Research Spring 2005

Debriefing l.jpg

  • Make a full disclosure of purposes of the research

  • Give a complete description of and justification for the deception

  • Discuss the problem of perseverance

  • Provide a convincing argument for the need for deception

  • Demonstrate bogus experiment or show participants that actual responses were never seen by the experimenter

  • Have participants observe a subsequent session showing deception

  • Make the individual an active participant in the research

Communication Research Spring 2005

Ethical issues in conducting research l.jpg
Ethical issues in conducting research

  • Intentional deception

  • Use of confederates

  • Physical and psychological harm

  • Upholding anonymity and confidentiality

  • Videotaping and audiotaping participants

  • Debriefing participants

Communication Research Spring 2005

Ethical issues in reporting research l.jpg
Ethical Issues in reporting research

  • Ensuring accuracy

    • Researcher is always responsible for accuracy regardless of who helps

  • Avoiding plagiarism by

    • Using direct quote

    • Using summaries or paraphrases

    • Acknowledge ideas or contributions

  • Protecting identities of participants

Communication Research Spring 2005