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Ecological sanitation - innovative wastewater management systems . Christine Werner, Patrick Bracken, Florian Klingel Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH ecological sanitation programme, Division 44 – environment and infrastructure. Commissioned by:.

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ecological sanitation innovative wastewater management systems

Ecological sanitation - innovative wastewater management systems

Christine Werner, Patrick Bracken, Florian Klingel

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH

ecological sanitation programme, Division 44 – environment and infrastructure

Commissioned by:

Water Resources Protection Workshop, 2-6 May, 2005, Selam Hotel, Asmara

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

world water and sanitation crises
world water and sanitation crises

The international context

  • Freshwater - increasingly scarcity and degrading quality
  • 1,1 billion people no access to safe drinking water
  • 2,6 billion people inadequate/no sanitation
  • Expected growth of the global population by 2 billion people in next 25 years, mostly in urban areas in developing and emerging market economies, and many of them doomed to poverty if no concerted effort is made to resolve the water crisis
  • 90 % of wastewater either poorly treated or not treated at discharge(only 25% of WWTPs built in DCs functioning)
  • 80 % of all diseases and 25 % of all deaths in developing countries can be attributed to polluted water (WHO)
    • In Sub-Saharan Africa at least 1/3 of incomes spent to treat water-borne diseases, 90% of all malaria deaths, more than 200 Million bilharzia infections, diarrhoeal diseases 240 times hi-income (Hansen, 2004)

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide3

millennium development goals (MDGs)

  • Achievement of poverty eradication and sustainable development by rapidly increasing access to basic requirements such as clean water, sanitation, energy, health care, food security and the protection of biodiversity
  • Set target for water and sanitation:To halve by 2015 the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and those without adequate sanitation
  • To reach this the sanitary provision rates of the ‘90s will have to be quadrupled (UN WWDR 2003)

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

why is sanitation important
Why is sanitation important?
  • It provides a healthy environment = healthy people (able to secure improved livelihoods and break the cycle of poverty and ill-health)
  • For children - no diarrhoeal disease or other health hazards results in increased school attendance etc.
  • Can reduce number of children below 5 who die as a result of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene.
  • Can particularly help improve women’s lives and increased security can protect against sexual harassment and violence for women and girls.
  • Preventive environmental health measures are as important and at time more cost-effective than health treatments
  • Basically - it saves lives!!!

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

some principles of sanitation
Some Principles of Sanitation
  • It is about behaviour and hygiene, not (just) about building toilets
  • It is a household decision with public implications
    • Central and local govt have roles, but behaviour is, in the end, decided at the household level
  • Children matter!!
    • 90% of health benefits are among pre-school kids… and worm infections among school-age children
  • Supply and demand are critical

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

why do people want sanitation
Why do people want sanitation ?

Top 5 reasons - from the Philippines

1. No smell and flies

2. Cleaner surroundings

3. Privacy

4. Less embarrassment when friends visit

5. Less disease

In Benin

1. Prestige and status 2. Comfort convenience and privacy 3. Protection against accidents in the bush 4. Increase the rent

Rarely is disease prevention mentioned!!

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

shortcomings of conventional watercarriage sanitation

Introduction to ecosan

shortcomings of conventional watercarriage sanitation
  • Unsatisfactory purification or uncontrolled discharge of more than 90 % of wastewater worldwide
    • Severe water pollution, unbearable health risks
  • Consumption of precious water for transport of waste
  • High investment, energy, operating and maintenance costs
  • Frequent subsidization of prosperous areas and neglect of poorer settlements
  • Loss of valuable nutrients and trace elements contained in excrements due to discharge into waters
  • Problems with contaminated sewage sludge in combined, central systems
  • Linear end-of-pipe technology

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

shortcomings of conventional drop and store sanitation
shortcomings of conventional „drop and store“ sanitation

Retention of solids

Infiltration of liquids

Pathogens

Nitrates

Polluted groundwater

Viruses

Introduction to ecosan

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

excreta are a valuable resource

million tons per year

(as N + P2O5 + K2O)

135

www.fertilizer.org

50

Introduction to ecosan

excreta are a valuable resource
  • Represents nutrients with a market value of around 15 Billion US dollars.

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

excreta are a valuable resource1
excreta are a valuable resource
  • recovery of energy content (covering about 20% of cooking energy needs for a typical family in a developing country)
  • energy savings in fertilizer production & wastewater treatment

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

need for a new approach to sanitation

Introduction

need for a new approach to sanitation
  • “business as usual“ will not allow us to provide sanitation to those who need it most.Conventional systems have failed - costs, resource efficiency, safeguarding public health and sustainability,
  • we cannot continue to waste our non-renewable resources
  • the global water, hygiene and soil degradation crisis requires new approaches
  • Innovative, holistic and sustainable approaches needed to provide safe and decent sanitation, reduce poverty, contribute to food security, preserve our environment and maintain the natural basis of life

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide12

Introduction to ecosan

Alternative approach:

ecological sanitation – “ecosan“

 What does it mean?

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

advantages of ecological sanitation

introduction

advantages of ecological sanitation
  • Improvement of health by minimizing the introduction of pathogens from human excrements into the water cycle
  • Promotion of safe, hygienic recovery and use of nutrients, organics, trace elements, water and energy
  • Preservation of soil fertility, Improvement of agricultural productivity
  • Conservation of resources
  • Preference for modular, decentralised partial-flow systems for more appropriate, cost-efficient solutions
  • Promotion of a holistic, interdisciplinary approach
  • Material flow cycle instead of disposal

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide14

eco-sanitation concepts and strategies

eco-sanitation…

  • … is notjust one technology, butan approach based on an eco-system-oriented view of material flows to deal with what is presently regarded as waste and wastewater for disposal
  • … applies the basic natural principal of closing the loop by using modern and safe sanitation and reuse technologies
  • … opens up a wider range of sanitation options than those currently considered.

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide15

FOOD

FOOD

closing the loop

between sanitation and agriculture

NUTRIENTS

NUTRIENTS

Principles of ecosan systems

Pathogen destruction

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

principles and objectives of ecological sanitation
Principles and objectives of ecological sanitation
  • The main objectives of eco-sanitation are to:
    • provide affordable, hygienically safe, and desirable sanitary facilities;
    • reduce the health risks related to sanitation, contaminated water and waste;
    • prevent the pollution of surface and groundwater;
    • prevent the degradation of soil fertility;
    • optimise the management of nutrients and water resources.

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

ecosan is a cross sectoral approach

Resource conservation

Climate protection

Business and labour promotion

Flood protection

Food security

ecosan

Integrated Water Resources Management

Sustainable agriculture

Health

+

Conservation of soil fertility

ecosan is a cross-sectoral approach

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

composition of household wastewater

14.1

12.3

5.3

3.6

K

Organics

kg COD/ (Person·year)

P

N

1.0

0.8

Nutrient content

kg N,P,K / (Person·year)

Introduction to ecosan

composition of household wastewater

10.000 – 200.000 l

50 l

500 l

source: Otterpohl

Volume

Liter / (Person·year)

greywater urine faeces

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

characteristics of substances
characteristics of substances

fraction

characteristic

1. faeces

  • hygienically critical
  • consists of organics, nutrients and trace elements
  • improves soil quality and increase its water retention capacity

2. urine

  • less hygienically critical
  • contains the largest proportion of nutrients available to plants
  • may contain hormones or medical residues

3. greywater

  • of no major hygienic concern
  • volumetrically the largest portion of wastewater
  • contains almost no nutrients (simplified treatment)
  • may contain spent washing powders etc.

Introduction to ecosan

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

fertilizer potential of human excreta

Introduction to ecosan

fertilizer potential of human excreta

source: Drangert, 1998

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

separation of substances

urine

(yellowwater)

greywater

(shower,

washing, etc.)

rainwater

organic waste

faeces

(brownwater)

hygienisation by

storage or

drying

constructedwetlands, gardening,

wastewater ponds, biol.treatment, membrane-technology

filtration,

biological

treatment

composting,

anaerobic

digestion

anaerobic

digestion,

drying,

composting

liquid or dry

fertiliser

water supply,

groundwater-

recharge

soil

improvement,

biogas

biogas,

soil

improvement

irrigation,

groundwater-

recharge or

direct reuse

separation of substances

substances

treatment

utilisation

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide22

Introduction to ecosan

eco-sanitation concepts and strategies

To optimise cost efficient, high quality treatment and recycling options, two principles are very often being applied in ecosan systems:

  • flow streams with different characteristics, such as faeces, urine and greywater, are often collected separately. Rainwater harvesting and the treatment of organic waste and animal manure can also be integrated into the concepts!!
  • the unnecessary dilution of the flow streams is avoided, for example by using dry, low flush or vacuum transport systems. This minimises the consumption of valuable drinking water and produces high valued concentrations of recyclables.

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide23

Sanitising urine

Time

and

Temperature

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide24

Sanitising faeces

Temperature

pH

Ammonia

Dryness

Solar radiation

Competition

Nutrients

Oxygen

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

technology examples
Technology examples

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

overview of ecosan technology components

ecosan technologies

overview of ecosan technology-components

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

examples of urine diverting toilets

ecosan system components

examples of urine diverting toilets

China

Dubletten, Sweden

Roediger, Germany

Wost-Man, Sweden

dry/wet:

faeces with, urine without flush

dry/wet:

faeces without, urine with flush

wet:

faeces & urine with flush

GTZ, Mali

waterless:

faeces and urine without flush

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

examples of urine diverting toilets1
examples of urine diverting toilets

Made from concrete in Mexico, Namibia, Botswana ....

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide29

examples of urine diverting toilets

Indoor UDS in Peru

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

examples of urine diversion toilet slabs
Examples of urine diversion toilet slabs

Urine diverting concrete slab

Composting toilet with urine separation (China)

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

waterless urinals
waterless urinals

ecosan system components

vacuum urinal

KfW-building, Germany

Ethiopia

Mon Museum, Sweden

South Africa

Tepoztlan, Mexico

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

examples of composting toilets

ecosan system components

examples of composting toilets

composting toilet, Germany

(Berger Biotechnik)

Schweden

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

examples of composting toilets1
examples of composting toilets

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

examples of dehydrating toilets

ecosan system components

examples of dehydrating toilets

various dehydration systems (with and without urine separation)

“Enviroloo”-prefabricated system, South Africa

“SolaSan”-prefabricated system, South Africa

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

prefabricated dry ud toilet south africa
Prefabricated dry UD toilet - South Africa

examples of dehydrating toilets

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

solar drying toilet in el salvador
Solar drying toilet in El Salvador

examples of dehydrating toilets

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

vacuum systems

ecosan system components

vacuum systems

elements:

vacuum toilets, vacuum urinals, vacuum conductions, pumping station

advantages:

water saving, concentrated black water collection, decentralised treatment possible (anaerobic)

manufacturer:

i.e. Roediger GmbH

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

vacuum systems1
vacuum systems

Gabarone, Botswana: Decentral wastewater collection using vacuum technology

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

membrane technology

ecosan system components

membrane technology
  • Highly effective removal of soluble and biodegradable materials in wastewater stream
  • selective permeable membrane (pore sizes < bacteria)
  • treated water recycle potential for non-potable application
  • compact, flexible system

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

anaerobic treatment with biogas production

ecosan system components

anaerobic treatment with biogas production

small scale biogas plants:

decentralised treatment of household wastewater with or without agricultural waste

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

aqua culture

tilapia

carp

duckweed

ecosan system components

aqua culture
  • wastewater treatment by aquatic plants and fish with nutrient recyling by human consumption
  • offers high quality protein at low cost
  • predominantly in Asian countries
  • fish production of 1-6 tons/ha·year) achieved

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

urine storage

ecosan system components

urine storage

Various containers for urine storage:

Gebers, Schweden

Lambertsmühle, Deutschland

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

agricultural use
agricultural use

ecosan system components

direct injection of liquid fertiliser

irrigation

urban agriculture

urban agriculture

dried faeces - „soil amelioration“)

composting with organic waste

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

practical examples
Practical examples

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

experimental on site sanitation in koulikoro mali supported by gtz

ecosan pilot projects

experimental on-site sanitation in Koulikoro, Mali (supported by GTZ)

Experimental on-site sanitation module consisting of a urine diverting dehydrating latrine, shower and greywater garden

Urine diverting concrete slab

Greywater garden

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

integrated natural ressources management in botswana supported by iucn ded gtz

ecosan pilot projects

Integrated natural ressources management in Botswana (supported by IUCN, DED, GTZ)

Introduction of ecosan systems in three communities: dehydration toilets, urine separation and fertilisation of gardens with urine

urine diversion toilet made out of plastic

Awareness workshop on a village level

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

participatory development of ecosan solutions in gibeon and marienthal namibia supported by gtz

ecosan pilot projects

participatory development of ecosan solutions in Gibeon and Marienthal, Namibia (supported by GTZ)
  • Information, awareness building, situation and stakeholder analysis
  • Participatory development of ecosan systems
  • Pilot and demonstration units (fixed and movable dehydration toilets with urine diversion)

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide48

Traditional use of dried faeces, Afghanistan

Traditional urine separating dehydration latrine with infiltration of the urine in the underground through soak pits

Upgrading UDS

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide49

ecosan pilot projects

ecosan public toilet centre Bangalore, India (supported by ACTS, SDC, Uni Oslo and GTZ)

8 toilet cabins, separate collection of urine, washing water and faeces, co-composting of faeces with paper and organic waste, urine and washing water for fertilizing and irrigation of the banana plantation

source: seecon GmbH

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

biogas septic tanks lesotho supported by gtz and ded

ecosan pilot projects

biogas septic tanks Lesotho (supported by GTZ and DED)
  • 1st step (2002): small bore sewer grid for 8 houses, a biogas-septic tank unit, upflow filter based on recycled plastic bottles, wetland, 800m² vegetable and fruit garden, two household connections for the biogas as full cooking energy source
  • 2nd step (2003): field tests of black, greywater and urine separation

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide51

Zimbabwe / Mozambique

The “fossa alterna”

Source: Peter Morgan, 2004

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

gtz headquarters main building germany

ecosan pilot projects

GTZ headquarters, main building, Germany

separation, processing and agricultural reuse of urine (implementation 2004/2005)

GTZ House1

Eschborn, Germany

Urine diversion toilets and waterless urinals

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

chinese four in one model

ecosan pilot projects

Chinese „four in one“ model

pig – toilet – biogas – vegetable

  • combined with Greenhouse Production
  • more than 10 000 000 times in Northern China
  • Use of nutrients, organics, energy and carbon dioxyde

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

ecosan dry toilet promotion in guangxi province china

ecosan pilot projects

ecosan dry toilet promotion in Guangxi-Province, China
  • Large ecosan project in the phase of up-scaling
    • 1997, pilot project funded by SIDA/Unicef, 70 ecosan (urine diverting dehydration toilets) built in pilot village, Dalu Village
    • 1998, 10,000 urine-diverting toilets were built in 200 ecosan villages in Guangxi
    • 2002, 100,000 ecosan toilets in Guangxi
    • 2003, 685,000 ecosan toilets in 17 provinces (Ministry of Public Health)
  • Factors of success: cultural acceptance, political commitment, technical flexibility, low cost, income generation, pressure from water pollution and water scarcity, promotion and marketing

Photos: Sandec, Text: Mi Hua

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

ecosan study and reuse experiments in havana cuba supported by gtz
ecosan-study and reuse experiments in Havana, Cuba (supported by GTZ)
  • Study of options for reuse of urine and faeces in existing urban agriculture in Havana

improved soil quality through reuse of organics

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

gtz supported ecosan activities around the world
GTZ supported ecosan activities around the world

ecosan pilot projects

ecosan activities supported by GTZ

Bulgaria

Germany

Algeria

Turkey

Afghanistan

Mali

Benin

China

Jordan

Iran

Cuba

Vietnam

Egypt

India

El Salvador

Yemen

Philippines

Burkina Faso

Ecuador

Indonesia

Zambia

Peru

Kenya

Namibia

Lesotho

Botswana

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

how would the city look
How would the city look?

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

urban ecosan concepts
urban ecosan concepts

Conventional Wastewater System

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

urban ecosan concepts1
urban ecosan concepts

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

urban ecosan concepts2

food

faeces

urine

greywater

drinking water

Periphery

urban ecosan concepts

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

urban ecosan concepts3
urban ecosan concepts

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

urban ecosan concepts4
urban ecosan concepts

Residential Area

food

faeces

urine

greywater

treated greywater

drinking water

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

urban ecosan concepts5
urban ecosan concepts

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

urban ecosan concepts6
urban ecosan concepts

food

faeces

urine

greywater

treated greywater

drinking water

Downtown Area

irrigation

of urban green

vacuum

sewerage

biogas

plant

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide65

urban ecosan concepts

Titel des Vortrags, einzeilig

oder zweizeilig

65

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

WfB, Rom – 12.Jan.2005

slide66

Aims of the GTZ-ecosan program

  • To promote the development and pilot application of holistic ecologically, economically and socially sustainable recycling- based wastewater and sanitation concepts in developing countries
  • To contribute to the global dissemination and application of ecosan approaches and establish these as state-of-the-art techniques – in both, developing and in industrialised countries

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide67

GTZ – ecosan R&D project

2000: 1st International Symposium on ecological sanitation in Bonn, Germany

2001: start 1st phase of the supra-regional research and development ecosan-project of GTZ, financed by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)

- development of ecosan knowledge management tools - building up of a global ecosan-network, - initiation of pilot projects

2003: 2nd International Symposium on ecological sanitation in Lübeck, Germanystart 2nd phase of the ecosan-project of GTZ- further development of knowledge management tools- support to the global ecosan-network- implementation of pilot projects

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

slide68

Key activities of the GTZ ecosan program

GTZ – ecosan program

  • knowledge management and networking
  • e-newsletter
  • ecosan website www.gtz.de/ecosan
  • ecosan source book (in progress)
  • ecosan-project data sheets (in progress)
  • ecosan-technical data sheets (in progress)
  • brochures, posters, professional articles, films, etc.
  • conferences & workshops
  • cooperation in the field
  • national & international working groups
  • ecosan pilot research and demonstration projects
  • baseline and feasibility studies for sanitation systems, treatment and reuse systems
  • advocacy and decision making workshops
  • training workshops
  • technical and operational advice for implementation
  • accompanying research
  • upscaling of projects and dissemination of experiences
  • more than 40 pilot projects worldwide

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

main challenges
main challenges
  • increasing of awareness
  • integration of reuse into planning from the beginning
  • revision of legal frameworks & technical standards
  • establishment of full cost analysis and risk and benefit comparisons
  • finding innovative investors and adapting financing instruments
  • implementation of large scale urban demonstration projects (in Africa large degree of experience with pilot installations - urgent need to go to scale)

Source: Petter Jenssen

Greywater treatment in Norway

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

a vision for alternative water management in urban areas
a vision for alternative water management in urban areas
  • future full-scale eco-sanitation systems in urban areas will most probably consist of a spatial multiple layer “patchwork“ of technical and management solutions for:
    • different areas (e.g. different solutions for city centre, commercial zones, individual housing areas, individual building entities, etc.) and
    • different wastewater flows (different solutions for urine, greywater, brownwater or mixed wastewater)
  • have to offer the same or a better level of comfort as the present systems
  • individual and flexible systems adapted to local and frame-work conditions
  • flexible in time: the transition from the standard centralised system to alternative systems will happen stepwise and start from certain patches (e.g. development areas) and for certain wastewater flows (e.g. greywater or urine)

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

present obstacles for the implementation of new sanitation concepts in urban areas
present obstacles for the implementation of new sanitation concepts in urban areas
  • inertia of the existing infrastructure (often designed for 50 or more years) and management systems
  • legal system tailored to centralised end-of-pipe systems
    • principles of source separation and resource recovery not reflected in current discharge standards and environmental laws
    • products from human excreta don´t appear in fertilizer regulations
  • monitoring structures exist only for centralized systems
  • alternatives not yet economically competitive, externalities and risks not reflected in costs of the current system
  • planners not yet familiar with the whole range of technological options and user centred planning methods

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana

thanks for your attention interest

conclusion

Thanks for your attention & interest!!!

www.gtz.de/ecosan

ecosan@gtz.de subscribe the ecosan-newsletter by sending an e-mail with the text “subscribe ecosan” to:majordomo@mailserv.gtz.de

Sector Network SOWAS, 3 - 7 October 2004, Accra Ghana