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Dual Language Programs. Defining Terms Defining Options Defining Results. Defining Terms. Dual language education: An umbrella term encompassing all programs in which two languages are used as the medium for delivering academic content

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dual language programs

Dual Language Programs

Defining Terms

Defining Options

Defining Results

defining terms
Defining Terms

Dual language education:

  • An umbrella term encompassing all programs in which two languages are used as the medium for delivering academic content
  • A program in which half of each class is made up of speakers of English and the other half, speakers of the target language
  • A form of bilingual education
  • All of the above
defining terms3
Defining Terms
  • Bilingual education
  • Two way immersion/Dual language
  • Foreign Language immersion
defining terms4

Uses two languages for instruction

Serves students of majoritylanguage backgrounds

Goal includes high levels of proficiency in new language and in home language

Use of home language gradually increased

Additive bilingualism


Uses two languages for instruction

Serves students of minority language backgrounds

Goal includes high levels of proficiency in new language

Use of home language gradually decreased

Subtractive bilingualism

Defining Terms
  • Uses two languages for instruction, with the home language of minority students used for most of the school day in 90-10 models.
  • Serves students proficient in English and students learning English
  • Goal includes high levels of proficiency in new language and in home language.
  • Use of both languages for about 50% of the school either from kindergarten (50-50 model) or by grade 3.
  • Additive bilingualism
  • For data on program outcomes see
  • www.lindholm-leary.com
defining options
Defining Options


  • Speakers of English
  • Heritage learners
      • Proficient in English
      • Learners of English


a) 90-10

b) 50-50

c) other

dual language programs in portland public schools
Dual Language Programs in Portland Public Schools

Overview of PPS Programs

Programs Goals and Concepts

Model Variables

Strengths and Challenges


10 programs 4 languages
10 Programs 4 Languages
  • K-12
  • 20 year history
  • Diverse settings
  • Diverse learner populations
  • Languages:
    • 7 Spanish
    • 1 Japanese
    • 1 Mandarin
    • 1 Russian
immersion program goals
Immersion Program Goals
  • The immersion language is used to learn subject matter content. Math, Science, Reading, Writing, Social Studies or The Arts may be selected as appropriate content subjects.
  • Language learning will also occur in the context of real life situations and help students interact in social situations.
  • Age appropriate instructional strategies and activities will be key instructional components, including content, language and cultural objectives.
  • Language and content curriculum are articulated using materials at an age-appropriate content level.
  • Expressive and receptive language development is emphasized at all stages of the program.
  • The program provides ways to motivate learning a second language. It encourages language and cultural enrichment activities such as summer programs, exchanges and travel.
key immersion concepts
Key Immersion Concepts
  • To develop high level of proficiency in reading, writing, speaking and listening in two languages.
  • To develop high academic performance in all content areas.
  • To develop a deep understanding and appreciation of other cultures.
  • To develop skills in cross cultural communication and a sense of responsible global citizenship.
  • To develop the ability to study and communicate across the curriculum in two languages.
  • To develop competence in social interactions in the two languages.
other impacting variables
Other Impacting Variables
  • One Teacher vs. Two Teachers
  • Content Allocation - what content do you teach in the target language
  • Specials role in program
  • Homogenous L1 Groupings for native literacy or L2 Language development
  • All School vs. Program within a School
  • Self Selection vs. mandated
  • Special Education/TAG/ESL
  • SES
strengths of our programs
Strengths of Our Programs
  • Committed Teachers
  • District Commitment to K-12
  • Strong community support
  • High interest from families
  • Model programs in district to draw upon for support
  • Collaboration with higher ed.
  • Data indicates academic and linguistic successes
challenges in implementation
Challenges in Implementation
  • Adequate language and literacy development
  • Appropriate curriculum materials both linguistically and developmentally
  • Supporting varying program models and languages
  • Dearth of research around non-cognate languages
  • Obtaining good data around language and literacy development
  • Addressing special ed. Issues
  • Finding qualified and certified teachers
  • Center for Applied Linguistics www.cal.org
  • Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition www.carla.umn.edu