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Dual Language

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  1. Dual Language A Closer Look at Instruction By: Jennifer Brennan Kyrias

  2. What is it? • Serves language minority and language majority students in one classroom • 50% of students from each language group • Supports children in first language (L1) while acquiring a second language (L2) • Additive model • Evanston model: Two-Way Immersion (TWI)

  3. % Language Percentages % • K: 90% Spanish, 10% English • 1: 80% Spanish, 20% English • 2: 80% Spanish, 20% English • 3: 70% Spanish, 30% English • 4: 60% Spanish, 40% English • 5: 50% Spanish, 50% English

  4. Why Dual Language? • To produce bilingual, biliterate, bicultural children • It is effective!

  5. Common Myths About Bilingual Education • Children learn second languages quickly and easily • The younger the child, the more skilled in acquiring a second language • The more time students spend in a second language context, the quicker they learn the language • Children have acquired a second language once they can speak it • In order to learn English, children should stop using & learning home language

  6. Pieces of an Effective Program: • Strong leadership & support: individual, local, district, and community-wide • Professional development: individual, local and district administration • High-quality, purposefully planned instruction • Environment where minority language and culture are highly valued

  7. Instruction must include: • Connections to social & cultural values and experiences of children • Language (WIDA) and content-area standards • Development of literacy skills in native language first, then add second language • Comprehensible input, sheltered instruction • Grade-level content-area instruction • Safe, low-risk environment where students’ language and culture are valued • ESL instruction embedded in context • Fair and appropriate assessment

  8. Reading • Begin with native language guided reading instruction, crossover around 3rd grade or when significantly above grade level • Whole group instruction primarily in Spanish for grades K-3 • Regardless of language of instruction, reading skills transfer to other language • Integrate content area in guided reading • Anchor lesson  guided practice  independent practice • Assessment: Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)/Evaluación de Desarrollo del Lenguajo (EDL), Fluency Checks, Unit Tests, Informal Monitoring • Use skills from basal, reading series trade book sets, content area trade book sets, Reader’s Theater, Literature Circles

  9. Support System • K-2 teaching assistants • Push-in guided reading teacher • PLP/ILP • Extended day • Fluency tutors

  10. Math • Fully in Spanish until Grade 4 • Reinforce cognates • Word wall with word  image • 3rd grade English translation of words that aren’t cognates • Photocopy & send home English translation packets (for parents to help with homework) • University of Chicago Everyday Math

  11. Science & Social Studies • Primarily instructed in Spanish • Build L2 vocab in ESL, read alouds • Integrate into guided reading • Depends on resource availability • Foss, National Geographic + • Hands-on, field trips, build background • Word Wall Vocabulary

  12. Writer’s Workshop • Primary: Lucy Calkins: Units of Study • Intermediate: Ralph Fletcher: Writing Workshop, Lessons for the Writer’s Notebook • Grammar embedded in mini-lessons, conferences • Native language, some crossover when appropriate - what is the goal?

  13. Word Walls • English: sight words/high frequency words • Spanish: Primary: sight words/high frequency words Intermediate: focus on vocabulary; post word lists for common error patterns, ex: b/v • Color-code: compound words, cognates, subject area (Spanish) • Math: vocabulary + image/example; 3rd grade introduce non-cognates in English to prepare for transition • Introduce/teach with purpose • Regularly interact with word walls • Teach students to refer to them regularly • Center activities

  14. Cognates/Cognatoson-going instruction To speak Spanish and English is of great importancia It is something you need in any circunstancia I've a method that shows there's a great abundancia Spanish words that you know each and every instancia The words that I've chosen are very didáctico It's a way to learn Spanish that is quite automático Some say I'm a genius, some say I'm lunático But they're wrong, I'm only A Cognate Fanático! Ellis Toussier-Ades Bigio-Antebi Be careful! embarrasada  embarrassed éxito  exit

  15. Lesson Planning SIOP: Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol • Approach for teaching content to language learners in strategic ways that make the subject matter comprehensible while promoting L2 development • Also known as SDAIE: Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English

  16. Social Structure • Place high value on minority language and culture • Encourage social and academic crossover interactions • Provide many opportunities for language experiences with one another • Teach BICS

  17. Assessment • What is objective of assessment, language or content? • Reading: Native language (DRA/EDL) • Math & Other: Language of instruction with support if needed • ISEL (primary), ACCESS, ISAT (intermediate) • On-going local assessments

  18. Resources • See complete resource list

  19. Summary • Dual Language is a worthwhile commitment to make to our children and their futures • DL requires time and energy to implement effectively • As a former TBE teacher, I have witnessed, firsthand, the effectiveness of DL • The social and academic rewards of DL are invaluable