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  1. Basics of KM Yale BraunsteinJune 2004

  2. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why is KM important? 3. The KM Process 4. KM Result Measurement 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM

  3. What is KM? • A newly emerging, interdisciplinary business model dealing with all aspects of knowledge within all types of organizations: • knowledge creation • documentation • codification • sharing • and how these activities promote learning, effectiveness, innovation and profitability • In practice, KM encompasses technological tools and organizational routines in overlapping parts • Sources: Gotcha Project (SIMS), www.asis.org I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM

  4. Knowledge … • is very difficult – often impossible - to imitate • gives its possessor an unique and inherently protected comodity • Any techniques or methods which sustain knowledge growth and distribution are the key to the success of organizations • Therefore knowledge is the most important competitive advantage of the modern firm. • Source: Gotcha Project (SIMS) Why is KM important? I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM

  5. Schumpeter: „Creative Destruction“ „price competition“ is not „ the competition which counts but the competition from the new commodity, the new technology, the new source of supply, the new type of organization“ Schumpeter understands the entrepreneur as someone who destroys the market equilibrium and creates a temporary monopoly. Source: Schumpeter „Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy“ I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM

  6. Firms resources as a basis of competitve strategy • Five Forces: Porter (1991): Five Forces Supplier Power I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM Barriers to Entry Rivalry Threat of Substitutes Buyer Power • Barriers of Entry: e.g. Proprietary learning curve • Knowledge restricts entry to a market / industry • Rivalry: Firm needs a competitive advantage • Source: www.quickmba.com

  7. The KM Process • All the processes (operations) that are related to knowledge assets • The KM process can be devided into several parts, e.g.: I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5.. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM Knowledge Creation, Generation, Evaluation, Improvement, Accumulation,Utilization Knowledge Storage Knowledge Distribution Knowledge Application Sources: Gotcha Project (SIMS),Maryam Alavy (University of Maryland )

  8. Explicit vs. Tacit Knowledge The difference between explicit and tacid knowledge: I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM Source: PricewaterhouseCoopersLLP

  9. Knowledge Creation / Generation (Nonaka) • a spiraling process of interactions between explicit and tacit knowledge where ideas form in the minds of individuals • interaction with others is usually a critical step in developing the ideas I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM Explicit Tacit Individual Group Organization Inter-Organization Sources: Gotcha Project (SIMS),Maryam Alavy (University of Maryland )

  10. Knowledge Creation / Generation (Nonaka) Tacit Tacit 1 Socialization Emphathizing 2 Externalization Articulating Explicit I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM 4 Embodying Internalization 3 Connecting Combination Explicit Explicit Explicit Source: Book p: 192

  11. Knowledge Markets, Mergers and Aquisitions • Knowledge Markets • Buyers: People who need answers for complex problems • Sellers: People/Companies (e.g. management consultancies) • Problem: Incomplete information, asymmetric knowledge, localness of knowledge • Mergers / Acquisitions • - Buy the embedded knowledge in work processes, core functions of organization, infrastructure and systems I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM Source: Stephen Ruth (George Mason University)

  12. Socio-Cultural Issues • Knowledge Storage • Organizational memory (individuals, culture, process, archives) • Very important: Search and retrieval • Knowledge Distribution • Organizational behavior and communication • Socio-Cultural Issues • Subject headings, etc. I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM Source: Stephen Ruth (George Mason University)

  13. Technology • Three-tier Database Architecture for storage, evaluation and publishing of information I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM Top Tier Middle Tier Bottom Tier

  14. Technology • Data Warehouses • Groupware • - Workflow Management Systems • Distribution via Internet / Intranet • Web Mining I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM

  15. The KM Process (re-visited) Socio-Cultural Issues I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM Knowledge Creation, Generation, Evaluation, Improvement, Accumulation,Utilization Knowledge Storage Knowledge Distribution Knowledge Application Technology Sources: Gotcha Project (SIMS),Maryam Alavy (University of Maryland )

  16. Human Capital • Training expenditures • Organizational learning • Employee commitment • Management experience KM Result Measurement (1) I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5.. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM • Innovation Capital • R&D expenditures • Percentage of workforce envolved in innovation • Product freshness • Copyright, trademarks/patents Source: Jochen Scholl/ Tammara Turner (Bossi & Vanyren, 2000)

  17. Customer Capital • Satisfaction • Perceived product/service quality • Duration of relationship • Repeat orders • Sales/customer KM Result Measurement (2) I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM • KM Process Stage Identification • Number of contacts in KM database • Number of topics in KM database • Hit rate • Productivity Source: Jochen Scholl/ Tammara Turner (Bossi & Vanyren, 2000)

  18. KM Result Measurement (3) • KM Process Stage Elicitation • Number of requests served from KM database • Accessibility to other relevant resources • KM Process Stage Dissemination • Push serves • Pull serves I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM • KM Process Stage Utilization • System usage as percentage of all information-gathering activities • User satisfaction • New business generated from usage Source: Jochen Scholl/ Tammara Turner (Bossi & Vanyren, 2000)

  19. A problem for KM is the abundance and vagueness of existing information • Therefore: Focusing on the knowledge, which is strategically relevant for the enterprise • Management has to understand the company’s core competencies • They create an added value and give the company a strategic advantage in competition KM and Business I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM

  20. Core Competencies • Core competencies… • Consist in a bundle of abilities and technologies • Are integrated in products, processes and in the mind of staff • Are the basis of economical success • Market competition becomes competition on knowledge. I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM

  21. KM is expensive: firms spend 7% of its revenues on KM, However: Problem of faulty knowledge, bad decisions • Most summary data (scanner, customer, transactions, demographics) never gets used • Knowledge managers are more „knowledgeable“ than anyone else • KM models vs. maps (e.g. categorization vs. market) • KM market vs. hierarchies (e.g. patent vs. open source) • Often people don´t want to share knowledge (lack of incentives) • Davenport, Bessen&Maskin Problems with KM I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM

  22. New Trends in KM (1) • New technology solutions • Hardware with better performance • Software solutions (Groupware, Databases) • Development of the Internet I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM • KM and E-Business • Web based services which support KM • Customer relationship Source: Jillinda J. et al

  23. New Trends in KM (2) • KM on an enterprisewide scale • Having one single successful initiative I. Agenda 1. What is KM? 2. Why KM? 3. KM Process 4. KM Results 5. KM and Business 6. Problems with KM 7. New Trends in KM • Advances in working with tacid knowledge • Development in business software • Workflow systems • AI Source: Jillinda J. et al