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Temperature Physics 313 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 2 Thermodynamics Thermodynamics is the study of energy e.g. a cylinder of gas accelerated to high speed has an increased kinetic energy but the same temperature

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temperature
Temperature

Physics 313

Professor Lee Carkner

Lecture 2

thermodynamics
Thermodynamics
  • Thermodynamics is the study of energy
    • e.g. a cylinder of gas accelerated to high speed has an increased kinetic energy but the same temperature
  • We will discuss the properties of a system and how they relate to internal energy, through both the macroscopic and microscopic points of view
macroscopic microscopic
Specify a few basic bulk properties

Classical Thermodynamics

Specify states of individual units

Statistical mechanics

Macroscopic Microscopic
systems
Systems
  • Material separated from its surroundings by a boundary
  • Closed
      • e.g. gas in a piston
  • Open
      • e.g. an automobile radiator
processes
Processes
  • State
  • Process
  • Quasi - Static (Quasi-Equilibrium) Process
      • slow changes
    • Non-quasi static processes are discontinuous
equilibrium
Equilibrium
  • Define two properties for a system
  • If the two properties remain constant the system is in equilibrium
  • A system is in equilibrium with itself if its properties are constant throughout the whole system
system boundaries
System Boundaries
  • Adiabatic Wall
      • thermal insulator
  • Dithermal wall
      • thermal conductor
temperature proxies
Temperature Proxies
  • Changes in temperature cause changes in other system properties
  • Two consequences:
  • We measure T by measuring changes in other properties
  • If T is not constant, nothing else is
    • Often given at standard temperature (0 C) or room temperature (20 C)
thermal expansion
Thermal Expansion
  • The degree to which a linear distance varies with temperature is given by:
  • Change in one dimension (linear expansion)
  • Very small (~one part in a million per degree) in most cases
    • Note that a itself is temperature dependant
the brooklyn bridge15
The Brooklyn Bridge
  • Built:
  • Designed: John A Roebling
  • Chief Engineer: Washington A. Roebling
  • Height:
  • Length:
    • World’s longest suspension bridge until 1903
  • To learn more about the Brooklyn Bridge visit your local library:
    • The Great Bridge : The Epic Story of the Building of the Brooklyn Bridge by David McCullough
thermal equilibrium
Thermal Equilibrium
  • Two systems separated by a dithermal wall that do not change properties
  • If the two systems are not in thermal equilibrium they will exchange heat until they are
zeroth law
Zeroth Law
  • Three systems A, B and T
  • A and T --
  • B and T --
  • Then for A and B
  • Two systems in thermal equilibrium with a third are in thermal equilibrium with each other
isotherms
Isotherms
  • Plot pressure and volume
    • Curve is called an isotherm
  • Temperature determines thermal equilibrium
temperature24
Temperature
  • Take an object T and mark it so that changes in its properties can be measured
  • Calibrate the measurements so that your scale corresponds to universally accepted situations
  • e.g. mercury thermometer
temperature scales
Temperature Scales
  • Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit invented the mercury thermometer in 1714
    • 32 F is freezing point of water, 212 is chosen for boiling point (32+180)
  • Anders Celsius introduced his scale in 1742
  • William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, developed the absolute (Kelvin) scale from his analysis of ideal engines
temperatures
Temperatures
  • Universe (Planck time) ~
  • Universe (today) ~
  • Average star ~
  • Average dust cloud ~
  • Planet (Mercury) ~
  • Planet (Neptune) ~
  • Planet (habitable) ~